Biology Study Guide Essay

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Final Exam Review

What is allele frequency?
This is how often an allele appears in a population.
What are the factors that change allele frequency?
The factors that change allele frequency are mutation, which results in the introduction of a new allele and causes an immediate, small shift in the equilibrium, migration, the movement of organisms into or out of the population and therefore the gene pool, random change, change in allele frequencies may result in a population with distinct characteristics, artificial or natural selection, this determines which individuals in a population will reproduce and pass on their genes, non-random mating of individuals, if certain individuals in a population show a preference for mating with individuals that have a particular phenotype, the mating pattern ceases to be random.
What is the difference between gene flow and genetic drift?
Gene flow is the movement of genes into or out of a population because of migration. Genetic drift changes in the gene pool of a small population due to change.
Explain the three types of natural selection that act on variation.
The three types of natural selection that act on variation are stabilizing selection, natural selection that favors average individuals in a population, directional selection, occurs when natural selection favors one of the extreme variations of a trait, and disruptive selection, individuals with either extreme of a trait’s variation are selected for.
What is reproductive isolation?
This is the inability of one group to interbreed successfully with any other groups.
Explain the evolutionary patterns of divergence, convergence, and co-evolution.
Divergence occurs when organisms within a species become so different that they can no longer interbreed. Convergence different groups have developed the same adaptations because they live in the same type of environment. Co-evolution is when two unrelated groups become uniquely adapted to one another.
What is taxonomy?
Taxonomy is the science of classifying organisms.
What is the most basic grouping used in biological classification?
The most basic grouping used in biological classification is species.
What are homologies?
They are the likeness in form, as a result of evolution from the same ancestors.
Explain the relationship between the evolutionary history of two organisms and amino acid differences in comparable proteins.
If two species are closely related in their evolutionary history, there will be few amino acid differences between comparable proteins.
What is phylogeny?
Phylogeny is the study of how living and extinct organisms are related to one another.
What is the goal of evolutionary classification?
The goal of evolutionary classification is to group species into larger categories that reflect lines of evolutionary descent rather than overall similarities and differences.
List the taxa in order from most inclusive (largest) to most exclusive (smallest)
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and lastly Species. Domain is the most inclusive and Species is the most exclusive.
Name the six kingdoms included in the taxonomic scheme used today
The six kingdoms included in the taxonomic scheme used today are animalia, plantae, fungi, protista, eubacteria, and archaebacteria.
What is true of all organisms in the kingdoms Animalia, Plantae, and Fungi?
They are all multicellular and eukaryotic.
What is true of the organisms in the kingdoms Eubacteria and Archaebacteria?
They are unicellular and prokaryotic.
What is true of the organisms in the kingdom Protista?
They are eukaryotic, unicellular, and multicellular.
What is binomial nomenclature?
Binomial nomenclature is when each species is assigned a two-part scientific name. The scientific name is usually Latin and written in italics. The first word of the name is always capitalized and is the genus for that organism. The second word of the name is always…