Biology study guide Essay

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Types of organic molecules and examples carbohydrates: sugar lipids: oil
Proteins: amino acids nucleic acids: DNA

Environmental laws – name and year (know a few)
Clean water act of 1972: established the goals of eliminating releases of high amounts of toxic substances into water, eliminating additional water pollution by 1985, and ensuring that surface waters would meet standards necessary for human sports and recreation by 1983
Safe drinking water act of 1974: intended to ensure safe drinking water for the public.[3] Pursuant to the act, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required to set standards for drinking water quality and oversee all states, localities, and water suppliers who implement these standards
Oceans Act of 2000: established the United States Commission on Ocean Policy, a working group tasked with the development of what would be known as the “National Oceans Report”

Definition of environmental science & scientific disciplines involved
Interdisciplinary study of human relationships with other organisms.
- Biology
- Geography
- Chemistry
- Sociology

Major components of blood
Red cells
White cells

Seven basic functions of respiratory system
- delivers oxygen
- expels carbon dioxide
- filters incoming air
- maintains blood pH
- helps control fluid and thermal homeostasis
- produces sound

Key functions of kidney
- removal of toxic waste products from the blood
- Regulating the amount of water and salt in the blood
- regulate blood-pressure
- processing of vitamin D

Five basic processes of digestive system
- ingestion
- mixing
- digestion
- defecation

Digestive enzymes and what they help to digest
- Protease (digests proteins)
- Amylase (digests carbohydrates)
- Lipase (digests fats)
- Sucrase (digests sugars)
- Cellulase (digests fiber)

Five basic functions of hormones
- send chemical signals everywhere in the body
- the development of bones and muscles
- bodily changes such as puberty.
- control metabolism
- aid in upkeep of homeostasis

Five types of taste receptors
- sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami (savory)

Consequences of unprotected sex – be specific (don’t just say STIs or STDs)
Unplanned pregnancy
Hepatitis A/B/C

Sperm and ovum production – how many in a lifetime
Sperm: 300 million per day until death
Ovum: 300,000-400,000all together

Overpopulation – definitions and explanations
- too many people in a given area
- Consumption overpopulation: each individual consumes more than their allotted share of resources

Animal species in decline
- Manatee
- Polar Bear

Hormones produced in endocrine glands and their functions
- Androgens and estrogens: development of secondary male/ female sexual characteristics
- Mineralocorticoids: increase absorption of sodium and water by kidneys
- Glucocorticoids: promote liver formation of glucose and glycogen
-Calcitrol: stimulates calcium and phosphate absorption.

Eleven basic functions of the urinary system
- excretes aqueous waste
- maintains fluid balance
- regulates blood composition and volume
- helps maintain blood pressure
- monitors and maintains red blood cell levels
- assists in vitamin D synthesis
- monitors and adjusts to the ionic composition of the blood
- regulates pH of the blood
-maintains blood glucose levels
- produces hormones that regulates calcium levels

Main parts of brain and functions
- The brain stem: regulates heart rate, breathing and blood pressure; houses reflex centers for sneezing, coughing, hiccupping and swallowing
- the diencephalon: relay center for sensory information and motor responses; visual and auditory startle reflexes are located here
- The cerebellum: focuses on muscles and movement, important in developing