Biomolecules: Protein and Amino Acids Essay

Submitted By only1ME95
Words: 617
Pages: 3

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AGENDA o √ THE ATOM o √ THE PERIODIC TABLE
√ BIOMOLECULES: o √o PROTEINS

o√CARBOHYDRATES o√LIPIDS o√ASSIGNMENT
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THE ATOM (OR
ELEMENT)

• GREEK FOR UN-DIVISIBLE

• SMALLEST UNIT OF AN ELEMENT THAT
MAINTAINS ITS IDENTITY OF THE ELEMENT
• ATOMS CAN BE CUT FURTHER, BUT THE LOSE
THEIR PREVIOUS IDENTITY
• ATOMS CAN BE COMBINED IN MANY WAYS

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ORGANIC MOLECULES
• COMPOUNDS CONTAINING CARBON,
FOUND IN LIVING MATTER
• FORMED FROM FEW ELEMENTS
• CARBON (C), HYDROGEN (H), OXYGEN (O)
AND NITROGEN (N)…97.5% OF OUT BODY
• CALCIUM (CA) IN BONES, ~2%
• OTHER ELEMENTS INCLUDE: IRON (FE),
SODIUM (NA) AND POTASSIUM, ≤ 0.5%
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Proteins are made of hundreds amino acids bonded together
Proteins are the “movers and shakers” of cells and form many cell structures
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WHAT IS A PROTEIN?
• HAIR, SKIN, ENZYMES, HORMONES,
ETC.
• BUILT FROM AMINO ACIDS LINKED BY
PEPTIDE BONDS TO FORM
POLYPEPTIDES
• MORE THAN 100 AMINO ACIDS CAN
BE MADE IN THE LAB ONLY 20 ARE
FOUND IN LIVING CELLS
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Bonds joining amino acids are termed peptide bonds.
Water is removed when 1 amino acid is joined to another amino acid.

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• MICROSCOPIC
PROTEINS

• MACROSCOPIC PROTEINS

• VERY SMALL
• SINGLE AMINO ACIDS
• EXAMPLE
• L-GLUTAMINE, HELPS
MAINTAIN HEALTHY
MUSCLES (20 ATOMS)

• VERY LARGE
• MANY AMINO ACIDS
• EXAMPLE
• HEMOGLOBIN
C3032H4816O872N780S8FE4
(9512 ATOMS)

• GLOBULAR PROTEINS

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PROTEIN IN YOUR DIET

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Carbohydrates hydrated carbon: carbon atom with a water molecule
CHO with H:O ratio always 2 : 1 (carbo hydrate)
Example: C6H12O6 (glucose)

Functions
1. Main source of energy for most cells
2. Storage of energy
3. Form cellular structures

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Monosaccharides a single sugar units
One hydroxyl (OH) group per Carbon

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Disaccharides

2 simple sugars bonded together with the removal of one molecule of water

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Polysaccharides
Many simple sugars bonded together Examples:
Plant Starches
Glycogen
Cellulose
Chitin

CARBOHYDRATES: STARCH VS. CELLULOSE
WE CAN DIGEST STARCH BUT NOT CELLULOSE, WHY IS
THIS?

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Carbon compounds that are insoluble in water
Have very few or no oxygen atoms

Functions
1. Store energy
2. Form cellular structures
3. Form many hormones

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LIPIDS
• INCLUDE: FATS, WAXES, GREASES
AND OILS
• FORM CELL MEMBRANES AND STORE
ENERGY
• A FAT CONTAINS TWICE THE ENERGY
OF PROTEINS OR CARBOHYDRATES
• LIPIDS HAVE HYDROPHILIC (WATER
LOVER) HEADS AND HYDROPHOBIC
(WATER HATER) TAILS

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Role of Lipids in the Body: Phospholipids

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Phospholipid bilayer
• DETERMINES WHICH MOLECULES WILL PASS
THROUGH
• HYDROPHOBIC MOLECULES PASS THROUGH READILY
• FATTY ACIDS, STEROID HORMONES,…