Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing
May 19, 2014
Also known as manic depression, bipolar disorder is a mental illness from sudden and dramatic shifts in emotional extremes. In which a person’s mood alternates between extreme mania and depression. The disease is usually in stages or episodes in which a certain mood prevails. There are three different levels of bipolar disorder which are bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and cyclothymic disorder. These conditions can be controlled with the use of medication and counseling.
In the United States over 2 million people are diagnosed with the psychological problem of bipolar disorder. Bipolar I involve intense and potentially dangerous manic episodes, and often negatively impacts work, education, and personal relationships. A person experiencing this disorder shows signs and feelings of self importance, talkative, and increased socialization. Bipolar II is not as severe as Bipolar I, but still includes heightened mood and agitation. Cyclothymic disorder is mildest form of the disorder, but with generally less severe psychological problems.
The symptoms of bipolar disorder are mania symptoms and depression symptoms. In manic phase of bipolar disorder, feelings of heightened energy, creativity, increased energy, unusual talkativeness, hyperactive, racing thoughts, irritability, less sleep, inflated self esteem, and euphoria are common. The most dangerous symptoms of mania are the practice of unprotected sexual encounters, binge drinking or drug use, and reckless spending. The depressive stages of bipolar disorder include symptoms of sadness, hopelessness, suicidal thoughts or behavior, anxiety, guilt, sleep problems, loss of ADLs, and poor performance of at work or school.
Bipolar disorder is diagnosed by using the guidelines from the DSM. The cause of bipolar disorder is not entirely known. Genetic neurochemical and environment factors probably interact at many levels to play a role in the onset and progression of bipolar disorder. The current thinking is that a biological disorder that occurs in a specific part of the brain and is due to a malfunction of the neurotransmitters. As a biologic disorder it can it may lay dormant and be activated spontaneously or triggered by stress. But bipolar tends to run in the family with someone with depression disorders.
A number of drugs are used to treat bipolar disorder, including mood stabilizers, antidepressants, and drugs that relieve anxiety. It all depends on the type of bipolar disorder and the person’s individual symptoms, medical history, and overall health. He or she can be prescribed any one or a combination of these drugs. Some of the most common prescribed medications for bipolar disorder are Lithium, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics such as Zyprexa, Risperdal, Seroquel, antidepressants, and benzodiazepines.
The treatments for bipolar disorder require lifelong treatments. Even when the affected person feels fine a psychiatrist or other mental health professional skilled in treating bipolar disorder gives the treatment. Psychiatrists usually recommend medication as the first step to balance moods and control symptoms as quickly as possible. Maintenance treatments are very important and without it risk of relapse is higher. Another psychiatric treatment is at the hospital with hospital settings so the patient can get well stabilized in a safe environment.
The DSM IV TR for bipolar I consist of code 260.0x Single manic episode (presence of only one manic episode and no past major depressive episodes). 296.40 Most recent Episode Hypomanic (Currently or most recently in a hypomanic episode. 296.4x Most Recent Episode manic (Currently or most