Biotechnology: Dna and Genetic Material Essay

Submitted By deanwinchester96
Words: 755
Pages: 4

Definitions for:

Biotechnology

(Biology 3.6)

To revise, cover the right-hand side of the table with a sheet of paper and move down the left column seeing which words you already know the definitions of (slide the paper down a word at a time to check). Tick these ones off, and concentrate on the others until you have learnt them all. Then cover the left-hand side of the table and have a go at writing the words to match the definitions!
If a word on the right-hand side is in bold, there is a definition for it elsewhere in the table.
The shaded words are less important.

|Bacteriophage virus |A virus whose host is a bacterium |
|Callus |Undifferentiated plant tissue |
|cDNA |Copy or complementary DNA. DNA without introns (only exons). It is produced using reverse transcriptase |
|Clone |A genetically identical copy of an organism. This includes cuttings, tubers, grafting, tissue culture but |
| |not seed formation |
|Dideoxynucleotide |Modified bases which when added to a reaction mixture cause chain termination. Used in gene sequencing |
|DNA chip (DNA microarray) |Glass or silicon plate studded with DNA fragments |
|DNA fingerprinting (profiling) |The process of analysing the DNA of an individual's body tissue or fluids for the purpose of |
| |identification. It often includes the process of Southern blotting |
|DNA polymerase |An enzyme that joins (polymerises) DNA |
|Explant |A section cut from a disease-free stock plant in tissue culture |
|Genetic engineering |The same as genetic modification, but used by speakers and writers who are opposed to the techniques |
|Genetic modification |Transfer of genetic material from one individual to another. The recipient may or may not be of the same |
| |species |
|Gene gun |A technique used to ‘fire’ ‘bullets’ of tungsten or gold coated with a gene into cells |
|Gene therapy |The transfer of genetic material from one person to another for their medical benefit. The same techniques |
| |are used as in any genetic modification |
|Ligase |A enzyme used to join sections of DNA together |
|Liposome |Spherical membrane similar in structure to cell membranes. Liposomes are used to introduce genetic material|
| |into cells |
|Microsatellites |STR — short tandem repeats. Short sequences (2–8 base pairs) able to repeat up to 100 times. Humans have |
| |many microsatellites and the number of repeats varies…