Mental disorders are actual health conditions that are defined as alterations in ones thinking, mood, or behavior that is associated with distress and/or some impaired functioning. Bipolar disorder also known as manic-depressive illness is characterized by a dysfunction of mood, alternating between states of mania and depression. The cause of bipolar disorder is unknown but, a mixture of factors seems to play a role. Genetic, neurochemical and also environmental factors interact at many different levels to influence the onset as well as the continuing progression of this disorder. Although we do not have a concrete cure for this disorder there are numerous treatments available to help aid with the negative symptoms of this disorder such as pharmacological, psychotherapy, and ECT.
Mental disorders are actual health conditions that are defined as alterations in ones thinking, mood, or behavior that is associated with distress and/or some impaired functioning (Malhi&Adams, 2010). Having a psychological disorder does not necessarily mean that a person who is diagnosed has a disability, yet in a lot of the cases the condition can become severe enough to be disabling (Townsend & Altshuler, 2012).
Bipolar disorder also known a n s manic-depressive illness is characterized by a dysfunction of mood, alternating between states of mania and depression (Malhi &Adams, 2010). Mania includes racing thoughts, grandiose delusions and marked lack of cognitive judgment. Approximately 2.3 million American adults are affected which is about 1.2 percent of the entire U.S. population (Kraguljac et al., 2012). When people become depressed, they may feel sad or hopeless and lose interest or pleasure in most of their normal activities. In contrast, when their mood shifts in the other direction they may then feel euphoric and full of energy (Townsend & Altshuler, 2012). The exact cause of bipolar disorder is actually unknown but, a mixture of factors seems to play a role. Genetic, neurochemical and also environmental factors will interact at many different levels to influence the onset and/or progression of the bipolar disorders (Frances & Jones, 2012). Researchers have begun to uncover that certain abnormalities in the brain’s networks could be a more predominant factor in the development of bipolar and other mood disorders. Another possible cause of such disorders that has received a great deal of attention by researchers is that of the imbalance of chemicals in the brain which transmit messages from one nerve cell to another (Townsend & Altshuler, 2012). These are known as the neurotransmitters, causing such things like the dramatic mood swings affiliated with the condition.
The neurotransmitters which are most commonly associated with the mood disorders include the monoamines (which are serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine), GABA , and glutamate(Frances & Jones, 2012).With these neurotransmitters, several things can go wrong with the actual transmitting process, including an overabundance of them or lack of a certain neurotransmitter or a premature shutdown of the release of neurotransmitter molecules. All these transmission issues cause significant changes in mood stability which can be a major role in the development of bipolar disorder (Frances & Jones, 2012).
Researchers believe that a low production level of a specific neurotransmitter such as dopamine or serotonin followed by a high production level may be the direct cause of the mood fluctuation associated with the disorder. Others believe that changes in the sensitivity of the receptors on the nerve cells are the cause (Kraguljac et al., 2012).Because of the connection between the neurotransmitters with symptoms of Bipolar disorder it can be treated, and people with this illness can lead full and productive lives.
One of the most common treatments used to regulate the neurotransmitters and prevent episodes of bipolar disorder