June 23, 2014 Abstract
The extreme highs and lows of mania and depression can hurt people’s jobs and school performance, damage your relationships, and disrupt their daily life. But they’re not powerless when it comes to bipolar disorder. Understanding the signs and symptoms and seeking professional help are the first steps to managing people’s symptoms and staying on track. But beyond the treatment they get from their doctor or therapist, there are many things people can do to help themselves, including surrounding themselves with people they can count on, making healthy lifestyle choices, and monitoring their moods (Help Guide, 2014). Bipolar Disorder
What is Bipolar Disorder? Bipolar disorder is a condition in which a person has periods of depression and periods of being extremely happy or being cross or irritable (National Library of Medicine, 2014). Causes of Bipolar Disorder The exact cause of bipolar disorder is unknown, but several factors seem to be involved in causing and triggering bipolar episodes. Biological differences and people with bipolar disorder appear to have physical changes in the brain. Neurotransmitters-an imbalance in naturally occurring brain chemicals called neurotransmitters seems to play a significant role in bipolar disorder and other mood disorders. Inherited traits-bipolar disorder is more common in people who have a blood relative (such as a sibling or parent) with the condition. Environmental stress, abuse, significant loss or other traumatic events may play a role in bipolar disorder (NIMH, 2014).
Bipolar disorder is known to affect about 2.6% of US adults in any given year, although its frequency may be much higher, because cases go untreated on misdiagnosed. Men and women are equally susceptible. More evidence suggests that the illness has at least a partial genetic basis, but its origins are still uncertain (NIMH, 2014).
Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder The symptoms are thought to result abnormal functioning of brain circuits that regulate mood, thinking and behavior and are beyond voluntary control. This disorder is not only life-disrupting but can also be dangerous. As many as 10-15 % of people with bipolar disorder commit suicide, usually when they are in the midst of a severe depression and may feel particularly hopeless about the future. Bipolar is divided into several subtypes. Each has a different pattern of symptoms. Types of bipolar disorders include: Bipolar I-mood swings cause significant difficulties in their job, school or relationships. Manic episodes can be severe and dangerous. Bipolar II is less severe than Bipolar I. The patient that has Bipolar II may have an elevated mood, irritability and some changes in their functioning but generally they can carry on with their normal daily routines. Instead of full blown mania, they may have hypomania-a less severe form of mania (Mayo Clinic, 2014). Symptoms include: Euphoria, Inflated self-esteem, poor judgment, rapid speech, racing thoughts, aggressive behavior, increasing physical activity, risky behavior, spending sprees or unwise financial choices, increase sex drive, insomnia, easily distracted, carless or dangerous use of drugs and alcohol, frequent absences and poor