-Higher order functions- Learning and memory
-Decision making (making judgements)/reasoning
-Memory formation (primary motor cortex)
Aphasia: Language disorder due to brain damage
Damage to Broca's area also known as:
primary motor cortex is specifically involved in controlling voluntary bodily movements through its control of skeletal muscles. Skeletal muscles are attached directly to bones and include the hand, arm, leg, back and facial muscles. Your skeletal muscles are involved when you smile, wiggle your toes, nod your head and bend to sit in a chair.
The motor areas receive and process information about voluntary bodily movements; that is, intentional movements such as when you scratch your nose or pick up a pen and write. Each frontal lobe has a motor area called the primary motor cortex. The primary motor cortex controls our movements by sending neural messages to various parts of the body to make them move in the required way.
association areas of each lobe receive and combine information from more specialised areas (such as sensory and motor areas and areas that store memories), allowing us to undertake more complex cognitive (mental) processes such as perceiving, thinking, learning, remembering, reasoning and so on.
Broca’s area has a crucial role in the production of articulate speech; that is, speech that is clear and fluent. Broca’s area is also linked to and interacts with areas of the cerebral cortex that are involved with the meaning of words and the structure of sentences, as well as the specific parts of speech such as adjectives, prepositions and conjunctions.
parietal lobe in each hemisphere receives and processes sensory information from the body and skin senses (called somatosensory information) and other sensory areas in the brain. It also sends information to other areas of the brain.
Processing sensory information
Pressure, pain, and touch & bodily movement sensations
Location of objects in space (spatial perception)
Inability to feel an object touching you eg. a glove
Inability to recognise the object that is touching them or to understand what the object actually does.
primary somatosensory cortex (also called the primary sensory area and primary sensory cortex) receives and processes sensory information from the skin and body, enabling us to perceive bodily sensations. This sensory information includes:
• pressure and temperature from sensory receptors
in the skin
• information about muscle movement and the
position of limbs from sensory receptors in the muscles, tendons and joints.
Narrow strip of cortex that processes sensory information about touch, limb location, pressure, pain and temperature all over
Occipital Lobe- Cortical Regions
Primary Visual Cortex- This is the primary area of the brain responsible for sight.
Main function: hearing-auditory processes-
Information retrieval (memory formation)
-aspects of visual perception (identifying objects and recognising faces)
-Emotional responses to sensory information and memories.
-Language comprehension is inhibited. Words and sentences are not clearly understood, and sentence formation may be inhibited or non-sensational
Brainstem & Cerebellum