Essay about Blood and Red Blood Cells /

Submitted By nikez32
Words: 1394
Pages: 6

Blood Study Review:

1. Intracellular- fluid inside the cell (cytosol)
Extracellular- all fluid outside of cells (blood plasma)
2. Human blood is a complex suspension; the fluid part which is the plasma (matrix) contains suspended solids made up of three kinds: red blood cells/ erythrocytes white blood cells/ leukocytes-granulocytes and agranulocytes platelets/ thrombocytes
3. Plasma- 55% of whole blood, 90% of water; solvent for nutrients and gases, 7% protein
Albumins: 60% (very important!)- made in the liver to maintain blood osmotic pressure
Globulins: 35% of plasma proteins and beta globulins- made in the liver and they transport lipids and fat soluble vitamins
Fibrinogens: 4% of plasma- made in the liver and used in blood clotting
Regulatory proteins: 1% of plasma proteins; include enzymes and hormones
3% other
4. Characteristics of Blood: more viscous (thicker) than water heavier than water temperature normal pH arterial blood is more alkaline than venous blood normal sodium concentration
8% of total body weight volume varies with gender: male 5-6 liters, females 4-5 liters
5. Functions of Blood: As blood circulates throughout the body, it plays a part in a variety of essential functions:
Transport- oxygen from lungs to body cells and and of carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs; of wastes from body cells to kidneys; of absorbed foods from small intestine to all parts of the body; of hormones carried to all parts of the body; and of enzymes
Regulations- maintains water/ electrolyte content of tissues through regulation of the volume of fluid leaving and entering blood vessels in the tissue; regulates body temperature by redistribution of blood (to conserve heat, blood is drained from skin and sent into deeper structures); regulates pH (buffering system)
Protection- phagocytic (WBC ingest bacteria); immunological (antibodies inactivate antigens); clotting which provides protection from loss of fluid and cells
6. Hemopoiesis- the process of blood cell production. It takes place in the embryo and fetus in yolk sac (sits close to umbilical cord, cells in this wall make blood cells); in liver, spleen, thymus and lymph nodes
Hemocytoblasts/pluripotent- all the formed elements are derived from stem cells
7. Erythrocytes- 700 times more numerous than leukocytes and 17 times more numerous than platelets.
They are anucleated, biconcave disks( to increase surface area with a diameter of 7.5 micrometer) with edges thicker than the center; have the capability of bending and folding to pass easily through small blood vessels. Erythrocytes cannot move of their own accord; they are moved passively through circulation by forces that cause the blood to circulate. Males have 5.4 million whereas females have 4.6 million cells per cu mm (ul).
Erythropoiesis- the process by which new RBCs are produced; takes about four days and 10 billion RBC in one hour
8. Hemoglobin- pigmented protein
Fetal hemoglobin- more effective at binding oxygen; baby gets more oxygen than mom
Heme- a red-pigment molecule containing an iron atom (5%)
Globin- a protein
Biliverdin- green color (bruises)
Bilirubin- orangey tint
Jaundice- a buildup of bilirubin
Physiological jaundice- takes place in newborns due to being born prematurely or due to diabetic mother
9. Adult males- 13-18 g/dl
Adult females- 12-16 g/dl
10. VPRC- volume of packed red cells; volume of blood occupied by RBC- a method of determining anemia
Males: 47%
Females: 42%
11. RBC production is affected by:
Erythropoietin- a hormone produced by the kidney and in small amounts by the liver due to low oxygen (hypoxia) carried by the blood stream to the bone marrow where it speeds up the development of proerythroblasts into reticulocytes
Dietary Factors:
Fe (Iron)- needed for making heme (hemoglobin)
Amino acids- needed for globin (protein)
Vitamin B6- important in hemoglobin synthesis (result