BNG Paper 2

Submitted By Tess-Fitzgerald
Words: 438
Pages: 2

Tess Fitzgerald
Professor Palmer
BNG 162 – 01
09 April 2015
Writing Assignment 2 For thousands of years, there have been numerous references to prosthetics. In 1579, French surgeon, Ambroise Paré began to design and build artificial limbs. However, the evidence for use of prostheses originates from the ancient Egyptians. These devices were made of accessible materials, such as wood, metal and leather. The first prosthetic to make movements was assisted with pulley systems, gears and handles. Andreas Vesalius was one of the first to make a mechanical hand that was controlled by several catches and springs, which imitated the joints of a biological hand. In 1551, a movable prosthesis was used by a French army captain who claimed that the hand worked so well that he was able to hold and release the reins of his horse.1 All types of prostheses used today can be inefficient, uncomfortable, hot, and can eliminate the use of joints near the amputated arm. Aside from that, prostheses are incredibly expensive, ranging from $11,000 to $100,000. In 2014, the budget for the Veterans Administration alone was $2.5 billion. A functioning hand is still a work in progress.2 The United States government, through the Department of Defense and the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA), has invested more than $150,000,000 to research prostheses. Its goal is to create an upper extremity prosthesis that will be able to function as a normal human arm, including full motor and sensory functions. However, only 62% to 64% of patients with a prosthetic arm use it daily. There is continued support and research in these areas of science and the teamwork among investigators from different fields can and will make the bionic arm an actuality.2 In 2005, DARPA announced its…