Chapter 1 Introduction to Chemistry
Branches of Chemistry
Chemistry- the study structure, properties, and composition of substances, and the changes that substances undergo
Organic Chemistry- the study of compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen, studies hydrocarbons
Inorganic Chemistry- studies all the elements and their compounds except carbon
Analytical Chemistry- concerned with the separation, identification and composition of matter. There are two types of analysis: quantitative analysis fids out about how much of each component is present and qualitative analysis finds out about the quantity present
Physical Chemistry- studies the energy changes in a reaction (thermodynamics), the rate of a reaction (kinetics) and the theories and mechanism in chemistry
Biochemistry- studies the chemistry of living things. It is part of organic chemistry. Wherever there is life, there is carbon.
Nuclear Chemistry- studies changes in the nucleus (center) of the atom. Radioactivity.
Physical vs. Chemical Property
A physical property is observed with the sense and can be determined without destroying the object.
Chemical Property indicates how a substance reacts with something else. The original substance is fundamentally changed in observing a chemical property.
Physical vs. Chemical Changes
In a physical change, the original substance still exists, it has only changed in form. In a chemical change, a new substance is produced. Energy changes always accompany chemical changes.
Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. Matter exists in three states, solid, liquid, and gas.
Solid has a definite shape and volume. Liquid has a definite shape but takes the shape of it container. Gas has no definite shape or definite volume. Takes the shape and volume of container.
Atomic number is the same as the number of protons.
Mass number is the total number of protons and neutrons.
Number of protons and electrons are the same.
Horizontal rows of elements on the P.T. are called rows, series, and periods.
Vertical columns of elements on the P.T. are called family, group, and column. They share similar properties because they contain the same number of valence electrons.
The Metals are