Kimberly D. Walker
University of Antelope Valley
Treatment in modern day society has changed in so many ways since the early 1900’s, take mental illness for example. In the early 1900's, society viewed mental illness as a disease of that was a weakness or a spiritual nature. Mentally ill patients were sent to asylums, where they were called lunatics or crazies, these patients were tortured as a form of treatment. Some treatments that were used are; submerging patients in ice water baths, electric shock therapy, straightjackets and even lobotomy. In the upcoming years psychiatrists practiced "moral treatment," a more humane approach to treating mentally ill patients. Which replace the harsh ways patients were treated in the past. Society also began the deinstitutionalization act and gave the mentally ill people a more comforting place to live. In this day and age we are able to help the mentally ill in a more efficient way with a wide range of treatments, medications and therapies. Taking the time to study all of our body systems is what helped these doctors to realize that there are better ways to treat patients. As I write this paper just maybe this will give someone more insight on how the body actually functions. Integumentary system is made up of skin, hair, nails, sweat glands and sebaceous glands. The skin is the largest organ on the body and covers an 18 square foot area. Its two main layers are the epidermis which is the outer layer and the dermis is the inner layer. The epidermis is the somewhat thin, waterproof and when skin is undamaged it can prevent most bacteria, viruses, and other foreign materials from entering into the body. Cells called melanocytes produce melanin, one of the main suppliers to skin color. Melanin's primary function is to filter out ultraviolet radiation from sunlight that can damage DNA and cause skin cancer, which can be treated by a dermatologist. The dermis is a thick layer of fibrous and elastic tissue made mostly of collagen, elastin, and fibrillin that give the skin its flexibility and strength. The dermis contains nerve endings, sweat glands and sebaceous glands, hair follicles, and blood vessels. Nerve endings are how our senses detect pain, touch, pressure, and temperature. The fingertips and toes contain many nerves and are extremely sensitive to touch. Sweat glands produce sweat in response to heat and stress. Sweat is made of water, salt, and other chemicals. As sweat evaporates off the skin, it helps cool the body down. Sebaceous glands secrete sebum into hair follicles. Sebum is oil that keeps the skin moist and soft and acts as a barrier against foreign substances. Hair follicles produce many types of hair found throughout the body. It can help regulate body temperature, provide protection from injury and enhance sensation. Blood vessels provide nutrients to the skin and help regulate body temperature. Heat makes the blood vessels expand, allowing large amounts of blood to circulate near the surface of the skin, so heat can be released. Cold makes the blood vessels get smaller to hold body heat.
The musculoskeletal system consists of muscles, bones and joints. The primary job of muscle is to move the bones of the skeleton system, but muscle also makes the heart beat and creates the walls of other important deep organs. There are three types of muscles smooth, skeletal and cardiac. Skeletal muscles make up about 40 percent of a person’s weight and there are over 600 skeletal muscles in the human body. Cardiac muscle is also an involuntary muscle; they make up the walls of the heart. Another involuntary muscle type is smooth muscle and makes up the walls of hollow organs, respiratory passageways, and blood vessels. An adult has approximately 206 individual bones in the body. Bones are arranged into two major groups: the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton goes along the body’s midline axis