Bone and Bone Marrow Transplant Essay examples

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Chapter 3
Ossification-the normal process of bone formation, a baby’s skeleton begins as fragile membranes and cartilage.
Periosteum-is the tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of bone.
Compact bone-also known as cortical bone, is the dense, hard, and very strong bone that forms the protective outer layer of bones.
Spongy bone-also known as cancellous bone, is lighter and not as strong as compact bone. The type of bone is commonly found in the ends and inner portions of long bones such as the femur. Red bone marrow is located within this spongy bone.
Medullary cavity-is the central cavity located in the shaft of long bones where it is surrounded by compact bone. Red and yellow marrow is stored here.
Endosteum-is the tissue that lines the medullary cavity.
Red bone marrow-is located within the spongy bone, is a hemopoietic tissue that manufactures red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, and thrombocytes.
Hemopoietic-means pertaining to the formation of blood cells.
Yellow bone marrow-functions as a fat storage area, and located in the medullary cavity of long bones.
Cartilage-is the smooth, rubbery, blue-white connective tissue that acts as a shock absorber between bones.
Articular cartilage-covers the surface of bones where they come together to from joints.
Meniscus-is the curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints, such as the knee and the temporomandibular joint of the jaw.
Diaphysis-is the shaft of a long bone.
Epiphyses-are the wider ends of long bones such as the femurs of the legs.
Foramen-is an opening in a bone through which blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments pass.
Process-is a normal projection on the surface of a bone that most commonly serves as an attachment for a muscle or tendon.
Joints-which are known as articulations, are the place of union between two or more bones.
Fibrous joints-consisting of inflexible layers of dense connective tissue, hold the bones tightly together.
Fontanelles-also known as the soft spots, are normally present on the skull of a newborn.
Cartilaginous joints-allow only slight movement and consist of bones connected entirely by cartilage.
Pubic symphysis – allows the movement to the facilitate childbirth. This joint is located between the pubic bones in the interior of the pelvis.
Synovial joint – is created where to bones articulate to permit a variety of motions
Ball-and-socket joints-such as the hips and shoulders, allow a wide range of movement in many directions.
Hinge joints – such as the knees and elbows, are synovial joints that allow movement primarily in one direction or plane.
Synovial capsule – is outermost layer of strong fibrosis tissue that resembles a sleeve as it surrounds the joint.
Synovial membrane – lines the capsule and secrete synovial fluid.
Synovial fluid – which flows within the synovial cavity, acts as a lubricant to make the smooth movement of the joint possible.
Ligaments – are bands of fibrous tissue that form joints by connecting one bone to another bone or by joining a bone to cartilage.
Bursa – is a fibrosis act that acts as a cushion to ease movement in areas that are subject to friction, such as in the shoulder, elbow, and knee joints where a tendon passes over a bone.
Axial skeleton – protects the major organs of the nervous, respiratory, and circulatory systems.
Appendicular skeleton – makes body movement possible and also protects organs of digestion, excretion, and reproduction.
Skull – consists of the eight bones that form the cranium, 14 bones that form the face, in six bones in the middle year.
Cranium – which is made up of the following eight bones, is that portion of the skull that and closes and protects the brain. These cranial bones are joined by jagged fibrosis joints that are often referred to as sutures.
Frontal bone – is the anterior portion of the cranium that forms the forehead.
Parietal bones – are two of the largest bones of the skull. Together they form most of…