1. Constructivism principle - when the students receive new information they recall (make connections with) their long term memory. In this manner students may do mistakes and it’s not a surprise. In exams if the students were given a chance to tell (vocally or in words) us what they think, we can test what they really know also in case we can provide them relevant cues.
2. Context principle – it has been proven by research there is a content dependence on responses of the students for problems. Though we need students to build their knowledge in wide range of contexts, it’s easy to use day today examples to ease students to understand tough theories.
3. Change principle – new information should be always presented to the students in a way that’s familiar to them. But it’s obvious that it varies from student to student what they know or familiar with. This hard process can also explained by using Bull’s eye. In this case it’s ideal to use day to day examples to illustrate theory stuff (kind of a story line structure), but not to use terms that students are not familiar with. Students create own knowledge (may be correct or incorrect) depending on what they gain from teacher and what they already know. At the end of each class, it’s good if the teacher can stop with something can be used for next class. From one aspect it’s often inefficient to repeat the problems with same structures and methods as the students may follow the steps without thinking, to overcome this we could change the format. Ex- we could give problems with same stuff covering at the background but presented as multiple choices or essay problems.
4. Individuality principle – it’s obvious to expect large standard deviation in educational studies because any collection of