For my summary review I will be discussing Bad Boys, written by Ann Arnett Ferguson. The article as a whole shows how schools produce race and social class distinctions here in the United States. This article describes the effects racial stereotyping and gender has on African American school children. In addition, Ferguson question why African American children are more often labeled as ‘trouble makers’ than other ethnic child groups. Ferguson suggests that just as children were tracked into futures as doctors and engineers, there were also tracks for some children, predominantly African American males and male, that led to prison. The article starts off at Rosa Parks elementary school where Ferguson is conducting research. He uses a student named Lamar to highlight how African American children are often labeled in a negative manner. Though African American boys only make up a quarter of the Rosa Parks elementary school’s student population, they accounted for almost half the number of student sent to the punishing room. The pattern for punishment at the school is not unique as there are many other similar situations across the United States. The next section of the articles talks about the dreams of the African American boys at Rosa Parks elementary school. Though the boys were facing tough odds to succeed, they had optimistic views about their future. Ferguson points out that many of the boys have similar dreams. They dreamed to be to be professional athletes. The chance of getting drafted to a professional sport is one in ten thousand. Due to the slim chances, films and literature emphasize how unrealistic these dreams are and persuade the students to direct their effort and energy towards learning. In addition, for these children to obtain high status occupations is just as unlikely. Children attending inner-city public schools are more likely to end up with inadequate jobs because they do not have the education offered to suburban public schools or private schools. As the article continues, Ferguson talks about the negative aspects of labeling a child at young age can do to them.
There are serious long-term effects of being labeled a troublemaker. Time lost from the classroom mean time lost from classroom learning and human possibilities are stunted at a crucial learning part of their lives. There is a direct relationship between dropping out of school and going to jail. Ferguson argues that we need to create educational systems that help