Brain and Cerebral Cortex Contralateral Essay

Submitted By sommersrayeebright
Words: 531
Pages: 3

Neuroscience and Behavior

Neural Communication Circuitry = nervous system=billions of neurons Axon= long trunk Terminal Branches off axon end connect with dendrites
Soma= body
Dendrite=branches off the soma; where NT’s are transmitted

Dendrite gives/receives signals from other neurons through action potential Electrical impulse that stimulates “messenger” chemicals = NT
Myelin sheath= fatty tissue encapsulating axon…bandwith/… Ex. M.S. = de-myelination from lesions (autoimmune)
Insulation is gone, nerve impulses (action potential) slow from
30M/sec to 2 M/sec

Synaptic Gap= small space between neurons—NT must traverse

Central Nervous System Neurons in the brain and spinal chord
Peripheral nervous system (everything else) Sensory neurons: bring info back to the CNS
Motor neurons: take info to the muscles Somatic n.s.= voluntary movements and reflexes I want to move my arm Autonomic n.s.= involuntary muscles and glands Sympathetic= excites (fight or flight) Parasympathetic= calms down (paramedics repair)

Endocrine System Hormones Adrenal glands – top of kidneys Secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine – fight or flight Pituitary Gland—behind eyes
Controlled by hypothalamus; master gland controls other endocrine fx

Primitive Brain Structures Brainstem=spinal chord forms medulla (breathing; heartbeat) Reticular Activating System=controls arousal (trainable…babies) Thalamus=sensory relay station (all senses except olofactory go through) Reconnaissance planes and puff of smell Cerebellum= rear of brainstem; coordinates movement of muscles; Alcohol affects this quickly

Limbic System =quite primitive; linked to memory, emotions, drive states Amygdale=aggression and fear
Hypothalamus=body maintenance fx; pleasure, rewards hormone control (controls pituitary gland) Center of brain Put together signals re: primary fx (sex, hunger, aggression)
Hippocampus= memory

Cerebral Cortex Contralateral representation L hemisphere- Language, Logic, Laughter (+) emotions, analytical R hemisphere- holistic thinking, artistic, (-) emotions (obtuse), spatial/visual perceptions

Frontal- organization, social competence, executive fx “time, space, place and face” Broca’s= L Frontal; controls language expression; muscle movements involved in speech broken speech Parietal- movement; near the motor cortex Problems = sensory confusion Occipital- vision Temporal- language/ auditory cortex In the ear, to the thalamus, back to the ear
Wernicke’s = L Temp; lang