The Brain is the main organ in the Central Nervous System, made up of three parts; the brainstem, cerebellum, and the cerebrum it controls all necessary functions of the body. The Brain utilizes neurotransmitters for the Nervous System and hormones for the Endocrine System to stimulate change within the body and strive to maintain homeostasis. There are multiple glands that are associated with the endocrine system located in the Brain: the Pineal Gland, Hypothalamus, and the Pituitary Gland. Many hormones are associated with the different glands and their functions are vital for maintaining homeostasis in the body. All glands are capable of forming tumors benign or malignant, and can produce many different syndromes and pathologies, which could change a person’s life or even cause death. Researchers have brought forth many medications and synthetic hormones for those with insufficient amounts. Maintaining homeostasis in the body is very important in the human body without it and the brain to help we would not live.
The Brain is the organ that controls all necessary function of the body; thoughts, speech, movement of the arms and legs, and functions of most organs. It receives information through five senses; sight, smell, tough, taste, and hearing. Storing information in our memory, and determining how we respond to stressful situations. The Brain is composed of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and the brainstem. The Brain has hollow fluid-filled cavities called ventricles. Located on the floor of the third ventricle is the master of the automonic system, the hypothalamus. The Pituitary gland, is located in a small pocket of bone at the base of the skull called the sella turnica and connected to the hypothalamus by the pituitary stalk. The Pineal gland is also located in the third ventricle.
The Pineal Gland
The Pineal gland is the smallest of all endocrine glands and is shaped like a pine cone. Located in the center of the brain and is also known as “the third eye.” It helps the body convert signals from the nervous system to signals in the endocrine system. Helps to control sex drive, hunger, thirst, and the biological clock which determines the body’s normal aging process. It produces the hormone Melatonin, which controls sleepiness and wakefulness. Natural light turns the gland on, when activated the brain moves from sleeping to a state of wakefulness, also called wakening the “third eye.” In case of melatonin deficiency, insomnia may occur. Apart from that, affected person may suffer from increased anxiety and disturbed immune system. Increased level of estrogen/progesterone ration as well as decreased basal temperature may also result from melatonin deficiency. Overproduction of melatonin may lead to disorders of the pineal gland as well. They include lower blood pressure, or hypotension, decreased levels of estrogen/progesterone.
The Hypothalamus is actually physically connected to the Pituitary Gland by the infundibulum or pituitary stalk. As the hypothalamus secretes seven different releasing hormones sent to the anterior pituitary through a mass of blood vessels and stimulates the release of the actual hormone that can be then sent out in the blood stream. The hypothalamus produces two additional hormones but does not secrete them, instead they are transported by neurons to the posterior pituitary and from there they are too sent out in the blood stream. The seven releasing hormones are as follows: Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH) it will affect the anterior pituitary and the thyroid gland, Prolactin Releasing Hormone (PRH), Prolactin Release-Inhibiting Hormone (PIH) these will affect the secretion of prolactin in the anterior pituitary, Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH) this affects ACTH release in the anterior pituitary, Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) will affect the anterior pituitary and in turn affect the gonadal