– Spring 2015
Exam #1 Essay Questions
1. What aspect of behaviorism made it attractive to critics of the psychoanalytic perspective? How did Piaget’s theory respond to a major limitation of behaviorism?
Psychoanalytic theory emphasized on the individual's unique life. However the theory was criticized because many of its ideas were too vague to be measured or tested for. They mainly focused on case studies. Behaviorism studied directly observable behaviors through stimuli and responses, thus allowing researchers to be measure and test behaviors. Piaget’s theory acknowledged the biological aspect of learning in a child’s development, which was a major limitation in behaviorism. He also argued that children take an active part in …show more content…
Therefore, newborns play an active role as they continue to grow and explore the world around them. The brain continues to be stimulated through experiences that contribute to many other factors such as emotion and social interaction.
● Vygotsky’s Sociocultural theory - Children actively acquire their ways of thinking and behavior that make up community’s culture through social interaction. In particular through conversation with knowledgeable members of society. Adults and peers help children master culturally meaningful events. Children are active and constructive beings, but in regards to Vygotsky’s theory, cognitive development relies more so on social interaction.
● Ecological Systems Theory - Focuses on a bidirectional relationship between the child and aspects in his environment from four levels: the microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and macrosystem. The child is an active contributor to their environment through the bi-directionality of their relationship with their environment. For example, an
easy-going and happy child will receive more positive stimulation from their parents, and other aspects of the environment.
● dynamic systems perspective- It is a system that combines the child’s mind, body and physical and social worlds form an integrated system that guides mastery of new skills. Stage like transformations occur as children reorganized their behavior so components of the system work as a functioning whole.
5. Why might a researcher