Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot’s article Foundations was published in 1757 and was a very radical way of thinking for the time. Turgot discusses his opinion on “foundations” which involved corporate charities that were created to aid the community. He felt the underlying motives of the charities were aimed solely to the benefit of the founder and their self-worth, and not to fixing the true problems that were present and all the more increasing with these foundations. He also discusses how these charities change over time and the negative effect it has. Turgot then presents his ideas on what we should do to end “foundations”, and what should be done instead to further the public good. Turgot felt that charities may have had good intentions but there was more harm caused in the long run than any benefit and claimed, “Is it not very easy to do harm in wishing to do good”. Because most of these charities looked to have good intentions the public was blind to the ill that would come to society as a result. He points out, “misery is most common and most widespread in precisely the countries where these charitable resources are most abundantly available”. When we provide free subsistence we subsidize idleness according to Turgot. As we give to the poor and create free services we give them no desire to improve upon themselves. There is no desire to work when you can get what you need for free. This attitude which was stimulated by the charities created more beggars and loafers. There was also an example given of the establishment of the houses of asylum for repentant women. These houses were set up to provide shelter for women that were former prostitutes. They would need to provide proof of their debauched life to be accepted. This charity did nothing to prevent the cause of debauchery which was the true issue, but overlooked this and provided a means of housing for prostitutes. If anything this would encourage prostitution as after participating in such debauchery they would then have somewhere to go and be accepted. This cause and effect relation that Turgot implies is resulting from charities is further solidified when he provides an analogy of charity provided to a well-run state with no poor, “An institution offering free assistance to a certain number of men would soon create some poor”. These charities will break down a state, creating more beggars and thus increasing crime and hurting the overall good of society. Turgot felt over time charities begin to break down and it is impossible to maintain their function, stating “There is no body that has not in the long run lost the sense of its original purpose”. He felt with time we start to do things by habit and lose the original desire we once had. He references how we feel when we first visit a hospital and the feeling you have toward humanity and the emotions toward the people in misery. With habit the workers in the hospital lose this feeling and he observes their lack of concern toward the patients as they carry out their daily duties. The original enthusiasm that was once had is lost with habit according to Turgot. As a result the purpose of a foundation cannot be fulfilled continuously and idleness is created. This idleness that Turgot refers to creates inaction. This has a trickle effect through the management of the foundation, each becoming less likely to take any action to expose any issues within the foundation. Any monetary interest will supersede taking any action as profit has become the aspect of the foundation. This creates a cycle of foundations that are degenerated and then replaced again and again, instead of being changed for the better. The founders obviously take more concern to the distinction that comes with creating new foundations. The other issue according to Turgot is that needs change over time so what was once…
Foundations of Psychology
Foundations of Psychology
Over the years different theories have been established to help understand peoples actions throughout their lives. Psychology is the scientific investigation of mental processes and behavior. Two of the main schools of thought in psychology are structuralism and functionalism.
Structuralism was developed by Edward Titchener, he attempted to to use introspection to uncover…
Research and Referencing Journal
Written by David Andrew Marchant
Upon choosing a topic of research from the list provided in the Foundation Studies Handbook, I sat down and with a piece of paper and a pen started to write down some brainstorming ideas on what I thought keywords for the subject were. (This was also done in class to a lesser degree).
This proved to be an immense help a little further into my research as a lot of what I thought were going to be “key” words to get excellent and useful…
with what is a project, what is project management then onto key concepts of the field. By following the PMBOK learning the responsibilities of a PM and the process involved with documenting a project proposal or charter. I have been able to form a foundation where I have learned how to create a project utilizing the nine knowledge areas along with the 5 project groups associated with these knowledge areas allowing me to properly get a project started and its scope defined.
Once I became familiarized…
it today; the methods of Cecchetti and Vaganova.
Enrico Cecchetti, an Italian ballet dancer, performer, and teacher, is the man behind the Cecchetti method of ballet. Born in a dressing room, Cechetti was the son of two dancers. He learned the foundations of ballet from his father and went on to train and dance in Saint Petersburg. He eventually became a teacher at the Imperial School and began to train top dancers. Upon death, his teachings were codified and are used to this day.
The Cecchetti method…
Foundations of Psychology
University of Phoenix
Foundations of Psychology
Psychology is the study our understanding of our thoughts, emotions and behaviors. To better understand psychology, it is best to understand the underlining foundations the subject, which include, not only the biological aspects of it, but also the major schools of thought that surround it. The five major schools of thought that surround psychology are structuralism…
The Relationship between Ethics and Critical Thinking.
Gen 201/ Foundations For University Success
Critical thinking is uncovered bias and prejudice thinking, it reveals the truth and the long term consequences because of it. There are many steps in the critical thinking process that aid in how break down, process, store, and make decisions about information.
The first step in the critical…
A. The Organizational Model. The CJ system is currently a closed system and this means that they are set up more bureaucratically which means that they have numerous layers of management, cascading down from senior executives to regional managers to departmental managers, all the way down to shift supervisors who work alongside frontline employees. Due to the many layers of management, decision-making authority has to pass through a larger number of layers. The disadvantages to this are that…
Due Date: 2/3/15
Dr. Jifeng Mu, MKT 514: Management of Marketing Activities
Chapter I: Foundations of Strategic Marketing Management
The first chapter in the textbook Foundations of Strategic Marketing Management written by Roger Kerin and Robert Peterson has a plethora of insightful information within the text. The discussions in this textbook range from SWOT analysis to a brief description breaking down the marketing mix. The goals of this chapter are to help the reader’s understand the following…
carry out their activities.
Anabolism is constructive metabolism; the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones.
Catabolism is the the phase of metabolism that involves the breaking down of complex compounds within the cells into smaller ones resulting in the release of energy to perform functions such as muscular movement or digestion.
5. Four Types of Tissues:
Connective- fibrous tissue that binds together, protects, and supports…
that some athletes are confounded, Moller discusses the topic through a very specific situation, and Crouch discusses the topic through a more general term. In his article, Moller says, “Back in February of 2000, I got to choose between breaking the rules and breaking my grades. I chose the rules, and it wasn't a tough decision. (3)” This phrase shows how Moller sees no difference between using performance-enhancing drugs as a student or athlete. He argues that because society praises athletes and puts…