Breast cancer is cancer that starts in the tissues of the breast. There are two main types of breast cancer. Ductal carcinoma starts in the tubes or ducts that move milk from the breast to the nipple. Most breast cancers are of this type. Lobular carcinoma starts in the parts of the breast, called lobules, which produce milk. In rare cases, breast cancer can start in other areas of the breast.
Breast cancer can be invasive or noninvasive. Invasive means it has spread from the milk duct or lobule to other tissues in the breast. Noninvasive means it has not yet invaded other breast tissue. Noninvasive breast cancer is called in situ. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), or intraductal carcinoma, is breast cancer in the lining of the milk ducts that has not yet invaded nearby tissues. It may progress to invasive cancer if untreated. Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is a marker for an increased risk of invasive cancer in the same or both breasts.
Many breast cancers are sensitive to the hormone estrogen. This means that estrogen causes the breast cancer tumor to grow. Such cancers have estrogen receptors on the surface of their cells. They are called estrogen receptor-positive cancer or ER-positive cancer. Some women have HER2-positive breast cancer. HER2 refers to a gene that helps cells grow, divide, and repair themselves. When cells (including cancer cells) have too many copies of this gene, they grow faster. In the past, women with HER2-positive breast cancer have a more aggressive disease. They have a higher risk that the disease will…