The Jeffersonian Era
The AP instructional strategies discussed below for Chapter 7 of American
History: A Survey focus especially, but not exclusively, on the following themes developed by the AP U.S. History Development Committee: American Identity, Culture, Demographic Changes, Economic Transformations, Environment, Politics and Citizenship, Religion, and War and Diplomacy. This chapter, as well as the primary documents selected below, follows the content guidelines suggested for the fifth topic in the AP Topic Outline The Early Republic, 17891815.
Top-Ten Analytical Journal.
Defining the chapter terms in their journals will help students better understand:
The political ideals and philosophy of Thomas Jefferson.
The Jeffersonian-Federalist struggle over the judiciary its causes, the main points of conflict, and its consequences for the future of the nation.
President Jefferson's constitutional reservations concerning the Louisiana Purchase and the significance of his decision to accept the bargain.
The reasons for President Jefferson's sponsorship of the Lewis and Clark expedition and the importance of that exploration.
The many problems related to Aaron Burr and his "conspiracy."
The numerous explanations of the causes of the War of 1812 and why there is so much disagreement among historians.
The problems caused by Tecumseh's attempts at confederation and by the Spanish presence in Florida as Americans surged westward.
The political, social, and economic changes brought about by new technologies.
Each of the terms below contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the Jeffersonian Era. As your students define these terms, encourage them to demonstrate why each person, event, concept, or issue is important to a thorough understanding of this chapter.
Public and private education
American authors and nationalism
Deism and religious skepticism
Second Great Awakening
Eli Whitney and the cotton gin
Robert Fulton and the steamboat
Barbary Coast piracy
Marbury v. Madison
Treaty of San Ildefonso of 1800
The Louisiana Purchase
Lewis and Clark Expedition
The Embargo, 1808
The Non-Intercourse Act, 1809
The “Indian Problem”
Tecumseh and the Prophet
Spain and Florida
Battle of New Orleans
Hartford Convention, 1814
Treaty of Ghent, 1814
RushBagot Agreement, 1817
Getting students started on their journals. Remind students that they must analyze and synthesize their understanding of these terms in two ways:
by creating “Top-Ten” lists of their own within their journals at the end of each chapter; and by justifying in their journal why their terms are essential to an understanding of “The Jeffersonian Era.” Journal entry example. Following is an example of how students might describe “American authors and nationalism” and its importance to an overall understanding of “The Jeffersonian Era.”
American authors and nationalism. A growing number of American authors began to create a national literature that conveyed distinctly American themes. Among the most popular were Washington Irving, Mercy Otis Warren, and Mason Weems. This literature helped instill a sense of nationalism throughout the growing country.
1. Analyze the ways in which the Great Awakening in the 18th century and the Second Great Awakening in the 19th century influenced the development of American society. (Adapted from the1994 AP U.S. History free-response question)
Some things to look for in the student response.
Possible thesis statement: The first and second Great Awakenings were reflections of the diversity of the growing American Republic.
Great Awakening. In the early 18th century, church leaders noted both a decline in the piety of their congregations and in church power. The consequence was the first great American revival the Great Awakening.