World Civics Since 1660
5 December 2012
Ch. 27- Modern East Asia
Chapter 27 talks about Modern Japan (1853-1945) and Modern China (1839-1949). From the seventeenth century into the nineteenth isolation of the islands of Japan was augmented by its policy of seclusion. There were many topics in this chapter.
What role did Choshu and Satsu-ma play in the overthrow of Tokugawa rule? The break came in 1858 when the bakufu, ignoring the imperial court’s disapproval, was persuaded to sign a commercial treaty with the United States. The Tokugawa regime collapsed only 15 years after Commodore Matthew Perry’s arrival. Choshu and Satsu0ma led diplomatic efforts to unify the bakufu and the court between 1861 and 1863; the tow domains fought against each other until 1866. Then they united and led the overthrow of bakufu.
What powers did the Meiji Constitution give to the emperor? From 1868-1890 the new Meiji government began sweeping Westernizing reforms in every field. Power was centralized, land taxes were reformed, political parties were created, and the Meiji Constitution was promulgated.This took a year and a half to come about.
The growth of a Modern Economy was pretty common. The Japanese government hoped a modern economy would help it build military strength. Reforms spurred economic growth.
They drew heavily on liberal Western models and proposed that parties in a national assembly would unite the emperor and the people, curbing the Satsu-ma-Choshu clique. This is how the political parties came about. Taxes were cut and the poor joined hoping to improve their condition. In 1881, the government promised a constitution and a national assembly within ten years. As the date for national elections approached, the parties gained strength, and the ties between party notables and local men of influence grew closer. Ch. 28- Imperialism and World War I
Chapter 28 focuses on the expansion of European power and the “New Imperialism,” emergence of the German Empire, the beginning and end of World War I, and the Russian Revolution.