Prorupted state -an otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension
Elongated state -states with a long, narrow shape
Fragmented state -includes several discontinuous pieces of territory
Perforated state -a state that completely surrounds another
Landlocked state -lacks a direct outlet to the sea because it is completely surrounded by several other countries
2. Apartheid- laws - in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas.
3. Forward capital-When a state moves its capital in order to make it more accessible.
4. Centrifugal/Centripetal-an attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state.
6. Reasons for cooperation among states- states want to trade with each other and maintain peace among the states
7. Types of borders:
Physical boundaries- Political boundary defined and delimited (and occasionally demarcated) by a prominent physical feature in the natural landscape such as a river or the crest ridges of a mountain range.
Cultural boundary- boundary between two states due to their cultural differences
8. Colonialism / imperialism and how it affects Africa:
Because Africa's geography was almost like a cowboy hat, with the brim the low lands of the coast until jutting suddenly into high, impassable mountain ranges in the middle of the continent, the high point of the hat. The Congo with all its mineral wealth was situated at the top of the cowboy hat. Once the proper technology came around and European nations were able to infiltrate deeper into the continent, there was a rush for Africa. Another way Africa's geography influenced imperialism was because of its mineral riches and raw materials: diamonds, gold, and oil. This was especially true in the central and southern parts of the continent, and once imperialism came about, there was a rush to colonize these parts.
9. self-determination-concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves
10. Stateless nation’s lack- formal rights protection from the state
11. Unitary/ federal-
Unitary states -a system that concentrates all policy-making powers in one central geographic place
Federal system-a system that divides the power between the central government and the sub-units
12. Traditional Society -1st stage; primary jobs
Precondition for takeoff -2nd stage; elite group leads country to invest in technology, etc.
Takeoff -3rd stage; rapid growth in limited industries
Drive to Maturity -4th stage; modern technology in limited industries spread to other industries; rapidly developed workforce
Age of Mass Consumption -5th stage; economy completes shift from primary to secondary and tertiary
Doesn’t consider immigration.
13. Self Sufficiency- Balanced equally. Equal economy, reduce poverty, isolate businesses to help, barriers limit imports, and