Essay on Buddhism Basics

Submitted By interunited123
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Buddhism Basics
Some books give terms in Sanskrit language, some in Pali language. The two languages are closely related and most of the words are similar. e.g., du kha/dukkha, nirvā a/nibbana. Terms here are given in Sanskrit. Generally Sanskrit terminology is better known in. the West.
Names of the Buddha:
Siddhārtha - gi ven name Gautama/Gotama - family name
Śākya - clan name (hence Śākyamūni 'the sage of the Shakya people')
Buddha - the Awakenend One Tathāgata - 'thus come' (Le. in the same way as other awakened ones)
Shakyamuni Buddha was born at Lumbini; attained Enlightenment at Bodhgaya (near Gaya); preached his first sermon at Sarnath on the outskirts of Varanasi (Benares); and died at Kushinagara.
Four Noble Truths (Ārya-satya):
1. Truth of suffering/unsatisfactoriness (du kha) suffering of suffering (obvious suffering) suffering of change suffering of conditioned existence
2. Truth arising of suffering (samudāya)
3 root causes: greed/attachment, hatred/aversion, delusion/ignorance
3. Truth of cessation of suffering (nirvā a)
4. Truth of the path to the cessation of suffering (marga)
Noble Eightfold Path
1.Right understanding
2. Right aspiration
3. Right speech
4. Right action
5. Right livelihood
6. Right effort
7. Right mindfulness (smṛti)
8. Right meditation/ concentration

Three Principals of the Path
Wisdom (prajñā)

Morality (śīla) (especially compassion - karu a)

Meditation (samadhi)

The twelve links of dependent origination (pratītyasamutpāda) of the wheel of becoming (i.e. cycle of birth and death - sa sāra). This cycle has no beginning: all arise in dependence on the others. ignorance (avidya) karmic formations (sa skāra) consciousness (vijñāna) mind body combination (nāma-rūpa) six sense bases (including mental consciousness and five senses) ( ad-āyatana) contact (sparśa) sensation (vedanā) craving/ desire (tṛ a)