Animal Driven Carts in Gaza City, Palestine Yahya Sarraj, Ph.D. (Corresponding Author) Associate Professor of Transportation Israa Jadili, B.Sc. Civil Engineer HYPERLINK email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Islamic University of Gaza P.O. Box 108, Gaza, Palestine Tel 0097082860700 Ext. 1040 Fax 0097082860800 The purpose of this paper is to estimate PCU values for buses and animal-driven carts at signalized intersections in Gaza City. PCU (or passenger-car equivalent unit, PCEU) is a factor used to convert all vehicle types other than passenger car into passenger car. The research team collected the required data at three main signalized intersections in Gaza City using a digital video recorder. To calculate PCU values the headway method was used. Statistical analysis of the results shows that a PCU value for buses was found to be 2.0 while that for animal-driven carts was 1.67. The PCU for a bus in Gaza was found to be similar to that in UK but different from India. The PCU for an animal-driven cart in Gaza was found to be different from that in India. Local traffic engineers may now use these results with more confidence of their local applicability. However, it is recommended to conduct further research on other vehicle types as well as to confirm the obtained PCU value for animal-driven carts. KEYWORDS Passenger car unit (PCU), Headway Method, bus, animal-driven cart, Gaza, Palestine. Introduction Different vehicle types occupy different spaces on the road, move at different speeds, and start at different accelerations. Furthermore, the behavior of drivers of the different types of vehicles may also vary considerably. This poses a problem for designing roads, intersections, and traffic signals. A uniform measure of vehicles is thus necessary to estimate traffic volume and capacity of roads under mixed traffic flow. This is rather difficult to achieve unless the different vehicle types are stated in terms of a common standard vehicle unit. For this reasons, the concept of Passenger Car Unit (PCU) or Passenger Car Equivalent (PCE) was developed to become as a common practice to convert the other vehicle types into PCUs. It is generally expressed as PCU per hour, PCU per lane per hour, or PCU per kilometer length of lane. Transportation engineers and professionals in Palestine and more specifically in Gaza Strip do not have local standards to use for PCU values. International standards provided by the Highway Capacity Manual 1 adopted in the USA and standards provided by the Department of Transport in the UK are usually used. These values are being used without local validation. In this work the authors are trying to provide local validation for some PCU values. The main objective of this paper is to determine the value of passenger car units for animal-driven carts and buses at signalized intersections in Gaza City. Like many other cities in developing countries, Gaza City traffic includes animal-driven carts in addition to other motorized vehicles. The paper will also compare the estimated Gaza PCU values to those from United Kingdom and India. local statistics It is important to present relevant local statistics showing the composition of traffic flow in Gaza Strip. This is to show the percentage of buses and animal driven carts in traffic flow. A report published by the Ministry of Planning in 2010 included several important local statistics 2. This report indicated that the records of the Ministry of Transportation show that the total number of registered vehicles in Gaza Strip in 2009 is 64,938 vehicles. It also shows that traffic counts on Salah El Din Road and Haroun El Rasheed Road indicate that the traffic composition consists of 0.99 and 1.60 buses and 2.03 and 2.25 animal driven carts respectively. On some main roads and intersections the percentage of buses and animal-driven carts reaches more than 3 and 5.8 respectively causing several problems to traffic movement.
such as using Second Life to bring distant clients together on simulated 3D projects designed in CAD.” (2) In 3-D modeling there is a greater push towards non-parametric modeling from companies like Spaceclaim; which lets you create and edit 3D models for conceptual design and prototyping. Also companies like T-splines that claim to be the first true alternative to NURBs based modeling. Since I have not been limited by CAD,yet let alone (NURBS) Non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) which is a mathematical…
B.UILDING I.NFORMATION M.ODELLING
The construction industry in the 21st century is facing a huge challenge. Building Information Modeling(BIM) is emerging as a technological, procedural and strategic new approach to the fields of Architecture, Engineering and Construction providing a way for iterating, documenting and managing a design through most of its life-cycle from conceptual design, design development to construction through operations and management. The bulk of the time…
SOLUTIONS TO CMPS058 MIDTERM
Question 1 - Information Systems Framework and Development (15 points)
Give the phases of the SDLC associated with each of the 8 phases in the FAST methodology: (5 points)
1. Survey Phase ___System Planning____________
2. Study Phase ___Systems Analysis___________
3. Definition Phase ___ Systems Analysis ___________
4. Configuration Phase ___ Systems Design ___________
5. Procurement Phase ___ Systems Design ___________
6. Design Phase ___ Systems Design…
and Commuters can be used as subclasses of the STUDENT class.
4. A business class is a virtual class that reflects a class of objects (or concepts) in the real world. A utility class is a virtual class that serves the information system as a whole and, usually, does not reflect an object in the real world. So, the main difference is that a business class does reflect objects in the real world and a utility class does not.
Some examples are:
5. The operation of…
management, where multiple information systems share a pool of related data.
ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: Data Management
6. The specific value of an attribute is called a data entity.
ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: Data Management
7. Due to their size, databases must be stored on mainframe computers or other large, powerful computers.
ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: Data Management
8. Climate control is an important component of modern data centers.
ANS: T PTS: 1
REF: Data Centers, Data Modeling, And Database Characteristics…
inancial modeling is the task of building an abstract representation (a model) of a financial decision-making situation. This is a mathematical model designed to represent (a simplified version of) the performance of a financial asset or portfolio of a business, project, or any other investment. Financial modeling is a general term that means different things to different users; the reference usually relates either to accounting and corporate finance applications, or to quantitative finance applications…
Jeffrey F. Zhang
Business Intelligence, ETL, Data Modeling, Database MSQL Development, Data Warehouse, VBScrip & .NET Development, Business Analysis, Project Management
Master of Computer Science & MBA, University of Virginia
B.S., Computer Science, Beijing University
Ullico Inc., Silver Spring, MD 2007 - Present
Senior Information System Analyst
* Implemented ETL packages to process large data files from the Third Party…
infintive- to and a verb.
To study something is to define it. Why do we undertake the act of defining? What does it mean when we define? For all intents and purposes, to define something is to clearly articulate everything that that something is and thereby, differentiate it from all things that it is not. As anyone who has ever asked the big questions in life, such as "What is the meaning of life? What…
formulas and learning those formulas is necessary to move further through the math world ("Wikipedia.org", 2011).
Social learning theory has limitations as well as strengths. One of the limitations is that the theory is loosely defined. Also, poor role modeling leads to poor behaviors developed by those observing the behaviors. It has been argued by several other theorists that behavior is not learned and that it is instead reactionary or response driven and based in emotions (Flamand, 1999-2012). Another…