Animal Driven Carts in Gaza City, Palestine Yahya Sarraj, Ph.D. (Corresponding Author) Associate Professor of Transportation Israa Jadili, B.Sc. Civil Engineer HYPERLINK email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Islamic University of Gaza P.O. Box 108, Gaza, Palestine Tel 0097082860700 Ext. 1040 Fax 0097082860800 The purpose of this paper is to estimate PCU values for buses and animal-driven carts at signalized intersections in Gaza City. PCU (or passenger-car equivalent unit, PCEU) is a factor used to convert all vehicle types other than passenger car into passenger car. The research team collected the required data at three main signalized intersections in Gaza City using a digital video recorder. To calculate PCU values the headway method was used. Statistical analysis of the results shows that a PCU value for buses was found to be 2.0 while that for animal-driven carts was 1.67. The PCU for a bus in Gaza was found to be similar to that in UK but different from India. The PCU for an animal-driven cart in Gaza was found to be different from that in India. Local traffic engineers may now use these results with more confidence of their local applicability. However, it is recommended to conduct further research on other vehicle types as well as to confirm the obtained PCU value for animal-driven carts. KEYWORDS Passenger car unit (PCU), Headway Method, bus, animal-driven cart, Gaza, Palestine. Introduction Different vehicle types occupy different spaces on the road, move at different speeds, and start at different accelerations. Furthermore, the behavior of drivers of the different types of vehicles may also vary considerably. This poses a problem for designing roads, intersections, and traffic signals. A uniform measure of vehicles is thus necessary to estimate traffic volume and capacity of roads under mixed traffic flow. This is rather difficult to achieve unless the different vehicle types are stated in terms of a common standard vehicle unit. For this reasons, the concept of Passenger Car Unit (PCU) or Passenger Car Equivalent (PCE) was developed to become as a common practice to convert the other vehicle types into PCUs. It is generally expressed as PCU per hour, PCU per lane per hour, or PCU per kilometer length of lane. Transportation engineers and professionals in Palestine and more specifically in Gaza Strip do not have local standards to use for PCU values. International standards provided by the Highway Capacity Manual 1 adopted in the USA and standards provided by the Department of Transport in the UK are usually used. These values are being used without local validation. In this work the authors are trying to provide local validation for some PCU values. The main objective of this paper is to determine the value of passenger car units for animal-driven carts and buses at signalized intersections in Gaza City. Like many other cities in developing countries, Gaza City traffic includes animal-driven carts in addition to other motorized vehicles. The paper will also compare the estimated Gaza PCU values to those from United Kingdom and India. local statistics It is important to present relevant local statistics showing the composition of traffic flow in Gaza Strip. This is to show the percentage of buses and animal driven carts in traffic flow. A report published by the Ministry of Planning in 2010 included several important local statistics 2. This report indicated that the records of the Ministry of Transportation show that the total number of registered vehicles in Gaza Strip in 2009 is 64,938 vehicles. It also shows that traffic counts on Salah El Din Road and Haroun El Rasheed Road indicate that the traffic composition consists of 0.99 and 1.60 buses and 2.03 and 2.25 animal driven carts respectively. On some main roads and intersections the percentage of buses and animal-driven carts reaches more than 3 and 5.8 respectively causing several problems to traffic movement.…
design”? This paper attempts to put these issues into perspective.
What is a business process?
A business process is a set of logically related business activities that combine to deliver something of value (e.g. products, goods, services or information) to a customer.
A typical high-level business process, such as “Develop market” or “Sell to customer”, describes the means by which the organisation provides value to its customers, without regard to the individual functional departments (e.g…
inancial modeling is the task of building an abstract representation (a model) of a financial decision-making situation. This is a mathematical model designed to represent (a simplified version of) the performance of a financial asset or portfolio of a business, project, or any other investment. Financial modeling is a general term that means different things to different users; the reference usually relates either to accounting and corporate finance applications, or to quantitative finance applications…
Building Background Knowledge
Background knowledge is information that you come to the table with. Marzano says, “We acquire background knowledge through the interaction of two factors: (1) our ability to process and store information, and (2) the number and frequency of our academically oriented experiences” (pg. 3). As teachers our job is to give our students methods to help process information. Methods we can use as teachers to give students the ability to process and store information include;…
ISYS 637: DATA WAREHOUSE
Figure: Generating Reports from facts and dimensional attributes
ISYS 637: DATA WAREHOUSE
Dimensional Design Process
(Source: “The Data Warehouse Toolkit” by Kimball and Ross, 2013)
1. Select the business process to model
◦ E.g. a dimensional model to capture order process
2. Declare the grain of the business process
◦ Specify exactly what an individual…
the Wikipedia (2014), Building Information Modelling (BIM) is a process of digitally represent the physical and functional characteristics of an infrastructure during its life-cycle, as a reliable basis for making decisions based on the cooperation between different stakeholders in exchanging the knowledge at different stages of the life-cycle of the infrastructure.
As a type of advanced construction tool, BIM plays a significant role in the Green Building construction and has a…
Today we live in our current reality where information is a basic asset. Data is likewise a basic asset and comprises of information that is prepared into information with the end goal of organizations and users. Gathered information is put away into what is known as databases where it is organized into potentially valuable information. Data also known as Raw data is a stream of facts that are not organized or arranged into a form that people can understand or use (Gillenson, Ponniah…
Naga Deekshith Baireddy
CMP 553 B
This article seeks to explain what database modeling is and how important it is for any organizations to create a custom model that will meet its requirements. The document therefore analyses the database model types and compares the different types that can be implemented. The factors looked at are the security features each applies and how much effort is needed to design and generate a suitable database for…
B.UILDING I.NFORMATION M.ODELLING
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entry and storage, data usually appear in flat tables, meaning that it consists of only columns and rows
While tables such as these can contain a lot of data, it can be difficult to get summarized information from them. A pivot table can help quickly summarize the data and highlight the desired information. The usage of a pivot table is extremely broad and depends on the situation. The first question to ask is, "What am I looking for?" In the example here, let us ask, "How many Units did we sell in…