Firstly, rational goal models is a response to the problem of organizing factory production efficiently. F.W. Taylor has developed scientific management, which is always associated with rational goal models. He proposed five ways: use scientific methods to find the best way of performing a mission; choose the person who can complete the job best; train, teach and develop the employees in order to fulfill the specific task accurately; provide financial incentives and give the responsibility to managers instead of workers. Rational goal method can extremely improve productivity also largely accepted. Some part of the channel are still widespread, for instance, bonus systems. However, this model also has negative effect, the most obvious one is this can lead to the increase of human costs. Many people argued that jobs are repetitive which will result in the alienation of human, give all responsibility to manager will strengthen the power of managers above workers and neglect the social needs of workers due to too much attention on individual.
Secondly, There are two writers who have pay attention on internal process model – Weber and Fayol. According to Weber, internal process model is the principles for organizing large bureaucracy fairly. Weber had developed six characteristics of this model: rules and regulations – is used to guide performance; impersonality is to prevent preference; division of labour is means that tasks are simple to learn; hierarchy is the reactions of the right to make decisions; authority is the structure ties system together and finally, rationality is to say administrator should apply the most high efficiency ways to reach the target. According to Fayol, internal process models is the principles for organizing the whole business. He emphasize that these should be used flexible as well as in proportion, these include division of work; unity of command and direction; find the right degree of centralization; stability of tenure and encourage initiative. The rules, regulations, and inhuman procedures of internal process models are utilized proverbially, as well as guarantee conformity and seem to be equitable. However, this models also have disadvantages, it can be tardy and rigid, the reasons for this is that situations are more likely to change than regulations; a part of an organization confront various situations; and adding value process may become less significant than rules.
Thirdly, human relations models – this is a reaction to scientific management and bureaucratic approaches. This model concentrated in human as social beings with numerous demands. Mary Parker Follett have recognized creativity of group processes, she claimed that bureaucracy should be replaced by group networks in which issues are solved by people and encourage individual to join in group organization to resolve problems and accepting personal responsibility for the result, in other words, integrative unity. Elton Mayo and Hawthorne had experiments - lighting experiment is to test what extent does light affect output; unpredicted finding irritated a more comprehensive study of the influence of physical environment changes. The relay assembly text room is to choose female employee, repetitive, measurable task. The working time, break time, refreshments are change regularly and seek for opinion. The finding bring conclusion, which they had changed the social and the physical setting. Hawthorne also have some other studies, like bank wiring observation room; male employee on payment by results system, finding that they output less than they could have done – showed the social pressures on members to comply with output levels set by group. Other study is interview program, this is to find worker attitudes to work and life on the whole, display a close