Fiscal Policy: Government spending policies that influences macroeconomic conditions. These policies affect tax rates, interest rates and government spending in an effort to control the economy.
Monetary Policy: The action of a central, bank currency or other regulatory committee that determine the size and rate of growth of the money supply, which in turn affects interest rates. Monetary policy is maintained through actions such as increasing the interest rate, or changing the amount of money banks need to keep in the vault or bank reserves
Methods of influencing market outcomes can come in the form of monetary and fiscal policies. Monetary policies influence shifts in aggregate demand for goods and services by increasing the money supply, reducing the equilibrium interest rates and stimulating investment spending or decreasing the money supply, raising equilibrium interest rates, lowering investment spending (Mankiw, 2004) Fiscal policies shift the aggregate demand curve by increasing or decreasing government