With the advances of medical technology people are living longer. In 1970, the average life expectancy at birth in the United States was 70.8 years; in 2008, it was 78.0 years; and by 2020, the U.S. Census Bureau projects life expectancy will reach 79.5 years. Disease and disability were at one point considered a part of getting old, but this idea has surpassed since perspectives on aging have progressed. As we age our very own biology puts us at risk for health issues; however, many older adults can be healthy and active well into their advancing years. It is an established medical and societal fact, that eating healthy along with exercise and physical activity can help promote healthy aging, but are there other factors that a person can instill into their daily routine that may aid in the age-defying process? The NIA and other studies are researching the benefits and risks of a number of approaches to anti-aging/healthy aging, including antioxidants, and calorie restriction. Antioxidants protect the body from the harmful effects of by-products known as free radicals, made normally when the body changes oxygen and food into energy. The discovery of antioxidants raised hopes that people could slow aging simply by adding them to the diet. So far, studies of antioxidant-laden foods and supplements in humans have yielded little support for this conclusion. Science has found that what you eat, how many times you eat, and how much you serve yourself can have an effect on quality and years of life. Scientists have focused primarily on calorie restriction, a diet that focuses on lowering the calories while keeping the percent of needed nutrients the same is (NIH). “Research in some animals has shown calorie restriction of up to 40 percent fewer calories than normal to have an impressive positive effect on disease, markers of aging, and, perhaps, life span. Scientists do not yet know if long-term calorie restriction is safe, beneficial, or practical for humans. However, the study of calorie restriction offers new insights into the aging process and biological mechanisms that could influence healthy aging” (NIH). For some though, healthy aging is not enough, they either want to stop it or reverse it all together. Scientists from Australia and the US believe they have found the pause and rewind buttons to the aging process. The research team discovered a key mechanism that keeps the body's cells communicating. “In youth, communication inside individual cells – between the cell's "battery" known as the mitochondria and the nucleus – is fast and frequent. But over time, this slows and aging accelerates. The aging process we discovered is like a married couple – when they are young, they communicate well. But over time, living in close quarters for many years, communication breaks down," Professor Sinclair says. “And just like a couple, restoring communication solved the problem" (Smith). How did Sinclair and his colleagues accomplish this feat? “Researchers gave mice injections containing the naturally occurring compound NMN, which raises the levels of a molecule called NAD. [The NAD] repairs the cells' communication network. If the compound is administered early enough in the aging process, in just a week, the muscles of the older mice were indistinguishable from the younger animals” (Smith). They then examined the muscles from two-year-old mice that had been given the NAD producing compound for one week. Following that, Sinclair looked for “indicators of insulin resistance, inflammation and muscle wasting. In all three instances, tissue from the mice resembled that of six-month-old mice. In human years, this would be like a 60-year-old converting to a 20-year-old in these specific areas” (Smith). Upon conducting their research they came across an important protein, HIF-1 that aids in the breakdown of communication, but this protein does more than interrupt cellular communication. “HIF-1 normally switches on when the body is
Many of these young individuals never quit smoking throughout their life. With that being said, the latest problem, teen smoking can be stopped and prevented by educating the youth and preventing media pressure.
The amount of teens who smoke has increased dramatically over the past years. This is a problem because smoking can lead to serious health risks and diseases that can kill the individual. It is evident that smoking in the youth occurs when there is no supervision around, although lately it is…
Roe v. Wade, but the abortion debate continues still to this day.
I believe abortion should always remain legal. First reason is there are cases of rape where women end up pregnant with the assailant’s baby. Second reason is if the mother’s health can be at high risk or the baby could have severe medical problems. I will also tell you what happens medically when a country has such harsh abortion laws. Most important of all it is our constitutional right and will remain that way. I believe the only…
damage is one of their essential properties, however, microglia can act as a double-edged sword. Although their beneficial qualities are ample, they can also become the cause of neuronal death.
There are various functions of microglia in a healthy brain. For instance, microglial cells act as phagocytes, which involve a direct, cell-to-cell contact (Banati et al., 1993). There are two main types of phagocytic events a microglial cell can undergo: The first one recognizes apoptotic cellular materials…
health care each year.
As a nation, more than 75% of our health care spending is on people with chronic conditions.3
These persistent conditions—the nation’s leading causes of death and disability—leave in their
wake deaths that could have been prevented, lifelong disability, compromised quality of life, and
burgeoning health care costs. The facts are arresting:
• 7 out of 10 deaths among Americans each year
are from chronic diseases.4
• In 2005, 133 million Americans—almost 1
out of every…
Science For Living Notes (Compiled)
Table of Contents
Unit 1 Measurement 5-10
Unit 2 Matter 11-48
Unit 3 Basic materials for maintaining life
Other biomolecules of life 72-76
Unit 4 Energy in the Community
Simple Machines 93-99
Unit 5 The Physical Environment
Weather and Climate 100-113