Trends in the incidence and prevalence of cancer Cancer incidence is lowest in late childhood and increases with age. The most common forms of cancer among children aged 0-14 years are lymphatic leukaemia, and brain and central nervous system cancers, which together accounted for 51% of cancer incidence inthis age group in 2000. For almost all cancers, incidence is higher among boys than among girls
Doctors often cannot explain why one person develops cancer and another does not. But research shows that certain risk factors increase the chance that a person will develop cancer. These are the most common risk factors for cancer:
.Certain chemicals and other substances
.Some viruses and bacteria
.Family history of cancer
.Poor diet, lack of physical activity, or being overweight
Many of these risk factors can be avoided. Others, such as family history, cannot be avoided. People can help
Social determinants and relationship to principles of social justice
There are a multitude of factors which interact to affect the nature of health outcomes for cancers.
Broad features of society and the environmentsocioeconomic characteristics, knowledge and attitudeshealth behaviours, psychology and safetybiomedical factorsindividual and population health outcomes.
Example: the challenges of moving to a new country can lead to psychological stress. This combined with cultural acceptance of tobacco use may lead to increase smoking as a way of coping with stress. Increased smoking may increase the risk of lung cancer and other cancers. Poor English might also impact on reduced access to early detection or monitoring programs which could further increase risk
.Groups at risk and priority populationsgroops
There are some groups which suffer higher risks, prevalence and burden associated with specific diseases. By targeting increased spending and