Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the main energy source for the human body. The primary function of carbohydrates is to provide energy for the body, especially the brain and the nervous system. An enzyme called amylase helps break down carbohydrates into glucose(blood sugar), which is used for energy by the body. When carbohydrates are in our body, they are being broken down and used as energy. When the body does not need to use the carbohydrates for the energy, it stores them into the liver and muscles. When carbohydrates are stored in your liver and muscles, it called glycogen. When the liver and muscles cells cannot store anymore glycogen, it turned into fat. When your body needs a quick boots of energy, it converts glycogen into energy. When it needs a prolonged burst of energy, it converts fat to energy. Carbohydrates are classified as simple and complex. The classification depends on the chemical structure of the food, and how quick the sugar is digested and absorbed. Simple carbohydrates have one(single) or two(double) sugars. Complex carbohydrates have three or more sugars. Simple sugars are sweet in taste and are broken down quickly in the body to release energy. Glucose and fructose are most common two types of sugar. Glucose is the primary form of sugar stored in the human body for energy. Fructose is the main sugar found in most fruit. They are also found in processed and refined sugars such as candy, regular carbonated beverages, syrups, and table sugars ect. Complex carbohydrates are also called starches. Starches included grain products, such as bread, crackers, pasta, and rice. As with simple sugars, some complex carbohydrates foods are better choices than others. Grains, such as white flour and white rice, have been processed, which removes nutrients and fiber. But undefined grains still contain these vitamins and minerals. Undefined grains also are rich in fiber, which helps your digestive system work well. Fiber helps you fell full, so you are less likely to overeat these foods. Because carbohydrates contain both sugar and starch, they have the biggest impact on blood sugar. Eating a correct amount of carbohydrate is important for our health. Most people should get carbohydrates between 40% and 60% of total calories from carbohydrates, preferably from complex carbohydrates(starches) and natural sugars. Complex carbohydrates provide calories, vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Foods that are high in processed, refined simple sugars provide calories but very little nutrition. It is wise to limit these sugars.…
explain the following concepts and ideas:
o Enzyme, activation energy, transition state
o Transition state analog
• Explain how transition state analogs can inhibit enzymes
• Identify possible enzyme inhibitors given transition states
BiolSci 210‐B | 1/28/13 | 16
Carbohydrates: How are the ABO blood groups determined?
Before we continue
Proteins are chains of amino acids …
What we found confusing and/or interesting about the reading:
Change of plans!
• Today: Chapters 11 and 12 only
• Next week: Chapters 13…
we cannot do this because we do not have the proper Ph balance to
break down raw meat in our stomachs. Without all of the proper tools and without cooking the
meat first, we become unable to safely eat it. “Humans and other herbivores have
carbohydrate digestive enzymes in their saliva, meaning that our bodies were created for
breaking down fruits and vegetables.” Another clue to us being herbivores is the way that we
chew our food. When we chew our food, we chew from side to side, or in…
Fat has always been looked at as bad, but it is only bad if one doesn’t understand the different types of fat and how they work or the importance of keeping your fat intake at a moderate level. Fat contains a certain amount of calories, which we need. But an excessive amount of fat or calorie intake can lead to weight gain or obesity. Fats are categorized as the “bad fats” which include saturated and trans-fats. Then there are the “better fats”, which are unsaturated fats, monounsaturated fats and…
Concept of carbohydrates
The carbohydrates are the compounds which provide energy to living cells. They are compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen with a ratio of two hydrogen’s for every oxygen atom. The carbohydrates we use as foods have their origin in the photosynthesis of plants. They take the form of sugars, starches, and cellulose.
The name carbohydrate means "watered carbon" or carbon with attached water molecules. Many carbohydrates have empirical formula…
Anna’s last meal and provide additional evidence regarding the conditions surrounding her mysterious death.
Eating a balanced diet is necessary for good health. The main nutrients in our food are classified as carbohydrates (sugars and starches), lipids (fats and oils), and proteins. Carbohydrates, including simple sugars such as glucose, are a great source of energy. Proteins are crucial in our diet as they help build tissue, fight disease, and facilitate chemical reactions. Lipids, commonly called…
biological macromolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
2. Use their understanding from the goals above to predict how various structural modifications can affect the behavior of macromolecules.
Part A. Answer the questions. Then use your answers to develop simple rules for identifying carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
1. What is the approximate C:H:O ratio in each of the following types of macromolecules?
molecules are complex carbon containing molecules. Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are all examples of organic molecules. Many organic molecules are formed of sub units called monomers which join together to form larger polymers through the process of polymerisation.
Contain carbon hydrogen and oxygen only. The ratio of hydrogen atoms to carbon atoms is 2:1.
Carbohydrates are divided into 3 main groups:
1. Monosaccharides - basic carbohydrate monomers i.e. Simple sugars. There are different…
Carbohydrates, a main nutrient, are an important energy source. Carbs provide our bodies with energy. There are two types of carbs: simple and complex.
Simple carbs, or sugars, can be found in food naturally or in refined and processed foods. These foods are processed through our bodies quickly. Some examples are fruits, candy, milk, and milk products.
Complex carbs, or starches, are found in grain products. Refined or processed products, such as white rice or white bread, remove important nutrients…
Large Biological Molecule
Atoms it Contains
Function(s) in Living Organisms
C, H, and O
Source of energy
C, H, and O
Glycerol and fatty acids
Cushion and insulate organs; builds cell membranes
C, H, O, N, and S
Helps chemical reactions, provides support and structure…
1120 mg sodium, 65 g carbohydrate, 6 g fiber, and 30 g protein.
Fat: 3.5 grams
12% fat. It’s important to consume less than 30% of your calories from fat. This item contains 3% saturated fat. Limit saturated fat to 10% of total calories daily.
49% of calories are from carbohydrate.
Sodium: 940 milligrams
People with diabetes often have high blood pressure. Sodium intake can affect blood pressure.
Side: large fruit cup
Calories 70 , Total Carbohydrate 17g, Dietary Fiber 2g…