Skeletal Muscle During Exercise

Submitted By johnnynodoe
Words: 466
Pages: 2

. Considering the fact that there is no gas exchange in the anatomical dead space, 150ml would have to be removed from the equation, leaving 250ml of tidal volume capable of gas exchange. Therefore, 250ml times 10(respiration rate) results in 2500ml per minute of alveolar ventilation in a resting person. If the person exercises, tidal volume increases to 4000ml, minus 200ml, leaving a total tidal volume of 3800ml. With a respiration rate of 20 breaths per minute, the alveolar ventilation will be 76000ml per minute. This increase in alveolar ventilation will benefit the skeletal muscle during exercise by providing more oxygen.
2.A. The purpose of the Ach is to bind to ligand gated sodium channels, which allow the entrance of sodium, which leads to muscle contraction. When the muscle is no longer required to contract, acetyl cholinesterase breaks down the Ach. When Ach is broken down, it unbinds from the ligand gated sodium channel, the channel closes, stopping the entrance of sodium and therefore stopping contraction of the muscles. If acetyl cholinesterase is rendered ineffective, Ach will not be able to unbind, resulting in involuntary muscle contractions. Muscles affected would be the skeletal muscles, the diaphragm and the extrinsic muscles of the eyes. The diaphragm will affect breathing if it cannot contract and relax rhythmically , which is necessary for proper gas exchange. If the muscles in the eyes contract involuntarily, the eyes may cross, creating double vision.
2.B. The poison could be counteracted if a drug was introduced that had a greater affinity to the poison than the acetyl cholinesterase, which will free up the enzyme, allowing it to break down the Ach. Or, if the drug changed the shape of the poison molecule, it would not be capable of binding to the enzyme.
3. The second sound heart sound is the aortic semi lunar valve closing. After this happens the…