Activity Level: Sedentary
1. It appears that Anita is suffering from the condition, osteoporosis. The back pain she is experiencing is most likely a result of her osteoporosis combined with her sedentary lifestyle. Anita seems to have a drink or two every night and although it might not be the main reason for her osteoporosis, it very well could be one amongst many causes. She has been smoking for her whole adult life and could very well be a contributing factor to this condition she has acquired. Many people report “shrinking” as a result of osteoporosis. Her condition is more than likely a result from her deficiency of vitamin D. Vitamin D increases the absorption of Calcium in the small intestine. Calcium is what helps make our bones strong so with a person who is already deficient in Calcium, being deficient in vitamin D not only could be a cause the the deficiency of Calcium but also make you more deficient. All bad for preventing osteoporosis. Vitamin C was also deficient and Vitamin C helps synthesize and strengthen the protein Collagen, which is concentrated in connective tissue, tendons, blood vessels, teeth and in BONES. Being deficient in all 3 of these vitamins is not good in the fight against osteoporosis. Anita is also Lactose intolerant so she probably did not get much milk in her diet as a child.
2. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis: Biological Factors: • Sex: Women are more prone to the disease than men • Age: Older individuals are at the most risk • Race: Caucasians and Asians are more prone to the disease • Family history: A biological history of osteoporosis or fractures associated with the disease puts one at greater risk • Frame Size: Smaller body frames have a higher risk of osteoporosis due to less bone mass Hormonal Factors: • Too much or too little of certain hormones • Reduction of the estrogen or testosterone hormone due to cancer treatments is a common cause of osteoporosis and a reduction of these sex hormones • Overactive thyroid hormone • Cushing’s Syndrome, or prolonged treatment with corticosteroid drugs Dietary Factors: • A Low Calcium intake over the course of one’s life • Individuals suffering from Anorexia A low food intake can decrease calcium ingestion. A decrease in calcium can halt menstruation, which also weakens bone. Lifestyle Factors: • A sedentary lifestyle puts one at a higher risk for osteoporosis • Too much alcohol interferes with the body’s absorption of calcium • Research has also shown that extensive tobacco use contributes to weakened bones. Other Factors: • Chronic obstructive lung disorders, such as bronchitis and emphysema.
3. Looking at Anita’s typical day’s diet, I would advise that she avoid high salt foods, high phosphorous foods, and consistent alcohol drinking. Excess salt, phosphorous, and alcohol in ones diet have been found to cause calcium loss overtime which in turn could cause osteoporosis. In her diet she ate pre packaged Uncle Bens rice, which is loaded with salt, her ham and cheese sandwich could maybe be replaced with a turkey, lettuce, and tomato sandwich to reduce the salt content in her lunch. Removing the pretzels would be great to reduce salt along with removing pickels. The steak taco from Taco Hell would be the thing in her diet I would recommend be removed first. Not only is it high in salt but it has preservatives and has been processed which is just never good. The chips, sodas, and beer in her diet have more phosphorous than she needs and could be causing calcium loss. If all these were replaced we might be getting somewhere. Also it has been found that table salt is related to calcium loss more so than natural salt.
4. I would recommend that Anita eat more dark leafy greens such as; watercress, kale, dandelion greens, turnip greens, arugula, and collard greens. I would recommend that she eats low fat cheeses,