June 25, 2015
One of the most common diagnostic tests done in any hospital or outpatient clinic is the complete ophthalmic exam, or an exam of the eye and vision accuracy. In this case study you will learn about how the eye is examined and about using an ophthalmoscope.
Read about the ophthalmic exam in you lab manual on pages 375-377 and visit this very informative website to learn more about the ophthalmic exam: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003434.htm
Now answer the following questions:
1. When you are first presented with a patient for an ophthalmic exam, what questions might you ask? (hint: what are some good questions to ask the patient about their history?)
I would ask the patient if they are currently experiencing any problems with their vision and if they currently wear glasses or contacts. I would also ask them when their last eye appointment was and if they are wearing glasses or contacts I would ask them for how long have they been wearing them.
2. Describe the process of testing for visual acuity in your own words:
A visual acuity test is an exam that determines how well you can see the details of a word or symbol from a specific distance away. There are several different types of visual acuity test, most of which are very simple to carry out. Depending on the type of test and where it is conducted, the exam can be carried out by an optometrist, an ophthalmologist, an optician, a technician, or a nurse. Visual acuity refers to the ability to discern the shapes and details of the things you see. It is just one factor in your overall vision, alongside color vision, peripheral vision, and depth perception. There are no risks associated with visual acuity tests, and no special preparation is required.
3. Name five external eye structures that you can look at in great detail with a slit lamp
Five structures that can be seen using the slit lamp are the ocular media, cornea, eyelids, lens and sclera.
4. Name three internal eye structures that you can study while using an ophthalmoscope.
Three internal eye structures that can be studied using as opthalmoscope are the pupil, retina and optic nerve.
5. Search online for a photo that shows the eyeball interior (a photo that might be captured as you where looking through your ophthalmoscope). Paste the picture below, or send it to me in an e-mail.
6. There are several pathological disorders that we can diagnose on if we conduct an ophthalmic exam. Pick one of the diseases/disorders below and describe what we would see in the eye exam that would lead us to this diagnosis.
Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD)
Blocked tear duct
Corneal abrasion (or dystrophy)
Corneal ulcers and infections
Damaged nerves or blood vessels in the eye
Diabetes-related damage in the eye (diabetic retinopathy)
Lazy eye (amblyopia)
There are five tests done to determine if a patient has glaucoma. The first is Tonometry which measures the pressure within your eye. During tonometry, eye drops are used to numb the eye. Then a doctor or technician uses a device called a tonometer to measure the inner pressure of the eye. A small amount of pressure is applied to the eye by a