From page 5
The economic cost of the priest was high because of the tithe and the annates (payments made by the priest to the pope) Corruption was rampant with issues like
simony (sale of church posts/ sacred objects to highest bidder rather than qualified people)
nepotism (giving posts to friends/family instead of qualified people)
-pluralism (holding more than one post simultaneously)
-absenteeism (priests being away for long periods)
- Priests were very important/powerful so it was felt that these abuses were totally unacceptable
- It was also felt that the Pope himself was corrupt which aggravated anti-clericalism (opposition to the corruption of the clergy)
The Importance of Religion in 1500
Societies of western Europe were dominated by religion.
Society was organised due to religion.
power was shared between 2 authorities.
political power was held by the princes and religious power by the
Church, led by the Pope in Rome.
The outlook of most people on their lives was influenced by religion.
people deeply interested in ‘the next world’..
life on earth was short.
child mortality was high.
many women died in childbirth.
adults were considered old at 40.
only fools and the weak willed were prepared to risk eternal damnation in order to enjoy the fleeting pleasures of sin.
the most significant motivating force in their lives was the desire to be certain of salvation.
> for this they had to turn to the Church.
The reactions of people to everyday situations was influenced by religion. no rational context in situations.
droughts, plagues and other natural disasters were seen as the work of
God or the Devil.
the immediate reaction was to pray to heaven for assistance.
people didn’t usually directly address God. > he was thought to be inaccessible to ordinary people. Political factors: Developments in Europe and Germany.
Page 56&57 (Thanks whoever did thisC.H) ● One of the reasons why the reformation started in Germany rather than anywhere else is because the Church was exploiting Germany more than other nations. ● By 1500, England, France and Spain had all developed strong centralised governments, which had enabled them to negotiate better deals with the papacy, such as lower taxes and more power over the church in their own territories while
Germany still lacked a strong central government which could resist the financial demands of the Pope.
● Demands from the Pope resulted in huge amounts of money, in the form of gold and silver leaving Germany each year to go to Rome.
● Onefifth of Germany was under the control of virtually independent bishops and archbishops meaning there was plenty of scope for lucrative dealings.
● In the Diet of Augsburg (1518) the Pope was referred to as “Hellhound”
● In the words of historian John Lotherington “This antiPapalism did not automatically mean the rejection of Catholic doctrine” but what it did mean was that the enemy of the Pope might well be seen as the friend of the German people. ● Therefore, it was not a surprise to see that as soon as the reformation was under way, Luther was referred to as “Hercules Germanicus” (German superhero).
Cultural page 62-63
★ Erasmus studied earliest Bible texts – Greek
★ Highlighted that some Church teachings based on mistranslations by St Jerome (wrote Vulgate)
★ 1516 – accurate NT in Greek, for others to use for vernacular ones
★ Wanted to show that teachings/practices of Church = often flawed/inconsistent
❖ Believed in teaching to live Christ-like lives instead of doing empty formalities
❖ Echoing the large group of unconnected reformers in Europe – wanted spiritual regeneration for c. 100 yrs
Similar to Luther:
➔ Reform needed for errors & inconsistencies
➔ L. used E.’s NT
➔ At beginning of reformation, they communicated often