B. Assuming Joseph's heart has stopped, what cellular processes and membrane functions are going to be affected by the loss of oxygen, blood glucose, and waste removal?
The cell respiration process is affected due to the loss of oxygen, blood glucose, and waste removal. This happens because glucose starts the process of glycolysis. Oxygen is needed for reactions in the mitochondria, and carbon dioxide needs to be removed from the cells. Carbon Dioxide levels started building up, as well as the bodies PH level. Without the heart pumping the oxygen and blood glucose won’t reach the vital organs of the body that need them for homeostasis. Sooner or later, without the ability to produce ATP, and the leakage of sodium, the body’s cells will die.
C. Which intracellular organelles have membranes as part of their structure? How would the breakdown of the membranes of these structures affect the function of joseph's heart cells? Every intracellular organelle has membranes. Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, and the nucleus are more common intracellular organelles that have membranes. If the mitochondria membrane is damaged it cannot produce ATP. Without ATP some of the channels in the plasma membrane will not function without energy. If the plasma membrane is damaged the channels are not working which would result in poor communication between cells. Pretty much SYSTEM OVERLOAD!!
D. Two important pieces of information- the instructions Joseph's body needs to repair itself and his predisposition for vascular disease- are both contained within the cell on which structures? The predisposition is within the Mitochondrial DNA since he has a family history of vascular disease, it’s already in his genes. The repairer would be in the mRNA which works the synthesis of proteins that fix the body.
E. Joseph's heart attack has caused the function of his cells to change. What types of proteins in the cell membrane were involved in the homeostatic imbalances of his heart cells?
ATP affects the pumping into the membrane by opening channels, when the channels are not working properly the cell doesn't function