Lecture 1 & 2:
Overview of anatomy and physiology:
1. Generally speaking, what does the study of anatomy and physiology tell you about structure and function relationships in the human body? What determines function?
- Structure determines function. Anatomy is how we describe structures, where it is located, what it is made of, and who it is related to. The physiology tells us the function.
2. Anatomy and physiology can be studied from many perspectives. What is meant by gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy? What is meant by cytology and histology?
- Gross anatomy is the anatomy that you can see with the naked eye where as the microscopic anatomy needs to be viewed under the microscope to see the tissues and cells. Cytology is the study of the cells and histology is the study of tissues.
3. Starting with the simplest, what are the levels of organization in living organisms that we discussed in lecture (see lecture notes)? Be able to arrange these levels from simplest to most complex. - Atoms -> Molecules -> Cells -> Tissues -> Organs -> Organ systems -> Organism.
4. What is homeostasis? Why is homeostasis so important in the study of living organisms?
- Homeostasis is when you maintain the stable internal environments. Without homeostasis the levels in the body will be irregular causing disorders or diseases.
The Cellular Level of Organization:
5. What are cells? What are cells capable of doing?
- Cells are the basic unit of life. Cells can do all basic life functions and maintain homeostasis.
6. What is the cell membrane? What are its functions?
- The cell membrane is a lipid bilayer on the outside of a cell. Cell membranes allows the process of homeostasis. It regulates what goes in and out of the cell. The functions of the membrane are sensitivity, support, regulation, isolation, and protection.
a. What are the protein structures of the cell membrane? – integral proteins and peripheral proteins. How does each of these proteins contribute to the functions of the cell membrane you listed above? – allows anchoring (mainly by the peripheral proteins), recognition, receptors, enzymes, channels, and carrier proteins.(Not all structures will contribute to all functions.)
b. How do the properties (structures) of the cell membrane contribute to the cell’s ability to maintain cellular homeostasis? – They regulate what goes in and out of the cell.
c. What factors (structures) determine the cell membrane’s permeability to different substances? Does the membrane prevent small, fat soluble molecules from entering or leaving the cell? -Proteins
7. What are the non-membranous organelles of the cell? What are their functions?
- Cytoskeleton – protein strings. Provide rigidity and support to the cell. They also work as zip lines that moves organelles. Actin and myosin are cytoskeletal elements which allows skeletal muscle movement. - Centrioles and Centrosome – these are made up of cytoskeletal elements. They are only active during cell division by allowing the separation of chromosomes.
- Microvilli – outfoldings of cell membrane. These are small and short. They increase surface area of the cell membrane. Can be found in areas with high absorption. GI tract.
- Cilia and Flagella – Cilia are longer than microvilli. Cilia allow substances to move across the surface. Can be found in respiratory tract. Flagella can only be found on sperms.
Ribosomes - They make protein. There are two typesL free ribosomes in the cytoplasm, and the fixed ribosomes that are attached to the ER
8. What are the membranous organelles of the cell? What are their functions?
- Endoplasmic Reticulum – Folded network of sacks. There are two types, rough and smooth, which is determined by whether they have