Cell Cycle Essay

Submitted By tolward
Words: 1949
Pages: 8

Joyce Tolward
Mr. Spickelmier
AP Biology
February 4, 2015
The Cell Cycle
1. Cell division is the process in reproduction and growth by which a cell divides to form daughter cells
2. Cell cycle is
3. Genome is the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes
4. Chromosome is a threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins
5. Somatic cells is any cell in multicellular organism except an egg or sperm
6. Gametes is reproductive cells, have only half the number of chromosomes as body cells
7. Chromatin is the long strands of DNA found in the eukaryotic cell nucleus; condense to form chromosomes; the readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins
8. Sister chromatids is the identical copies of a chromosome; full sets of these are created during the S(DNA replication) subphase of interphase; two daughter strands of a replicated chromosome joined at the middle by a centromere
9. Centromere is a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape
10. Mitosis is a cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes; eukaryotic division
11. Cytokinesis is the final stage of the cell cycle, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles into each of the two new cells.
12. Meiosis is a process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus, which results in the production of sex cells
13. Mitotic phase is the phase of the cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokinesis; usually shortest part of the cell cycle
14. Interphase is a cell that grows, performs its normal functions, and prepares for division; consists of G1, S, and G2 phases; accounts for 90% of the cycle
15. G1 phase is the first growth phase of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins
16. S phase is the synthesis phase of the cell cycle; the portion of interphase during which DNA is replicated
17. G2 phase is the second growth phase of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs; stage of interphase in which cell duplicates its cytosol and organelles
18. Prophase is the first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus
19. Prometaphase is the second stage of mitosis, in which discrete chromosomes consisting of identical sister chromatids appear, the nuclear envelope fragments, and the spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of the chromosomes
20. Metaphase is the second stage in mitosis or meiosis in which the duplicated chromosomes line up along the equatorial plate of the spindle
21. Anaphase is the third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles
22. Telophase is the fourth and final stage of mitosis or meiosis, during which a nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes; the final stage of meiosis when the chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle
23. Mitotic spindle is the spindle-shaped structures formed form microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movement of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis
24. Centrosome is the material present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells, important during cell division; the microtubule-organizing center
25. Aster is a radial array of short microtubules that extends from each centrosome toward the plasma membrane in an animal cell undergoing mitosis
26. Kinetochore is a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held