Describe each function and name ALL of the cell organelles involved in the process.
a.) Cell growth and metabolism: The mitochondrion and the chloroplast.
b.) Creation of new cells: Many organelles are involved in cell reproduction, including the nucleus, the mitochondria, and chloroplasts.
c.) DNA replication: During mitosis, basically all organelles are involved in DNA replication because their DNA has to be replicated in order to have cloned cell. The mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA and can self-replicate, though.
d.) Protein synthesis: Ribosomes, Rough ER, and Golgi Apparatus.
I. Cell Cycle
a.) What is the cell cycle? The series of events that happens in a cell when it divides and duplicates itself.
b.) Why does the cell cycle occur? It happens because the cell eventually becomes too big to sustain itself, and the only solution is to divide into two separate cells.
c.) What are the checkpoints in the cell cycle? They are control mechanisms that make sure the processes at each phase of the cell cycle have been accurately completed before allowing the cell to continue into the next phase.
II. Phases of the cell cycle
a.) What are the phases of the cell cycle? Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
1.) Describe what happens to the following, if present, during each stage.
- Chromatin: During Prophase, the chromatin wind up and form chromosomes. During Metaphase, they line up on spindle fibers. During Anaphase, chromatins separate and travel to poles. During Telophase, chromatins unwind.
- Chromosomes: Chromosomes are chromatin at first. They become chromosomes during Prophase. Then, the same
- Centromeres: They are the “anchor points” that control the separation of chromosomes when cells divide. So, they work throughout Metaphase and Anaphase to actually allow separation to occur.
- Spindle fibers: During Prophase, spindle fiber apparatus appears. During Metaphase, spindle fibers are set at the poles, and chromosomes line up at the equator of them. During Anaphase, spindle fibers take the chromatins back to the poles. During Telophase, the spindle fibers disassemble.
- Nuclear envelope: During Prophase, the nuclear envelope dissolves.
b.) The cell spends most of its time in interphase.
1.) What is happening during this phase?
The cell is