Both plant and animal cells are eukaryotic cells which mean they have a ‘true’ nucleus. Animal cells can come in an array of sizes and unusual shapes, unlike a plant cell which is typically rectangular or cube shaped.
What can be found in a Plant Cell and an Animal Cell?
Cell Membrane - This surrounds the cytoplasm in the cell, enclosing its contents. It is thin and semi permeable and allows substances to move through it.
Cytoplasm - a gel like substance where chemical reactions take place.
Endoplasmic Reticulum – The endoplasmic reticulum comes in two types, smooth and rough. The smooth contains no ribosomes whereas the rough does. The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) is the site of protein synthesis due to the presence of ribosomes. The Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum makes lipids and carbohydrase and stores and transports them.
Golgi Apparatus - responsible for manufacturing, storing and shipping certain cellular products.
Golgi Vesicles – these produce vessels that are membrane bound. They also contain enzymes that have been transported through the cell.
Mitochondria – respiration occurs here to produce energy.
Nucleus – contains the genetic information of the cell
Nucleolus – found within the nucleus and helps with the synthesis of ribosomes.
Ribosomes - consisting of RNA and proteins, ribosomes are responsible for protein assembly.
Structures which can only be found in a Plant cell
Cell Wall- Keeps the cell rigid and protects the cell.
Chloroplasts – this is where photosynthesis occurs. It contains a green pigment named chlorophyll to help absorb light for photosynthesis
Starch grain – stores excess glucose or breaks it down when needed dependant on photosynthesis
Vacuole - structure in a plant cell that provides support and participates in a variety of cellular functions including storage, detoxification, protection, and growth. When a plant cell matures, it typically contains one large liquid-filled vacuole.
Plasmodesmata – channels that are in-between plant