1. Know the functions for the following organelles:
a. Ribosome- makes the proteins
b. Golgi apparatus- Modifies, sort, and packages proteins, involved the transport proteins around the cell and in the creation of lysosomes
c. Smooth ER- The smooth er is associated with the production and metabolism of fats and steroid hormones, and its only jobs is the production of lipids and to detoxify products such as alcohol and ethanol. Unlike the rough er the smooth er is not covered in ribosomes and has a more tubular shape.
d. Rough ER- The rough er is studded with ribosomes making it rough. It's function is to synthesize, package and produce proteins through translation.
e. Lysosome- contains enzymes and breaks down waste materials, stomach of the cell
2. Know what happens during transcription & translation and the functions of the following molecules in these processes: Transcription- the process of making an RNA copy of a gene sequence,
Translation- The process of making an amino chain, polypeptide
a. Genes- encodes and acts as the instructions for making a protein
b. mRNA- carries the codes copied from DNA in 3 base codes (called codon) that specifies on the amino acid from the nucleus to the cytoplasm
c. tRNA- it carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to be added onto the polypeptide chain
d. rRNA- The sites in which proteins are made
e. Codon- a sequence of three nucleotides that make up a genetic code in a DNA and RNA molecule.
f. Anticodon- a sequence of three nucleotides forming a unit of genetic code in a transfer RNA molecule, corresponding to a complementary codon in messenger RNA.
g. Amino acid-
3. Know the path of the protein takes from being made to being released from the cell. Secretory path- From ribosomes then goes through the rough endoplasmic reticulum them the Golgi apparatus into a vesicle and from there is shipped to through the cytoplasm and then outside the plasma membrane.
4. Compare & contrast DNA & RNA.
5. Know how to read and use a Codon Chart.
6. Know the following parts of an operon (regulatory genes):
a. Promoter- right before the operator, where RNA polymerase binds and begins copying the gene
b. Operator- the on off switch, if the repressor protein is connected to the operator the gene is turned off, if not the gene is left on
c. Inducer- CONTROLLED BY AMOUNT OF REACTANT- when the reactant is present enzymes will be made and the process will start. Turns on that gene.
d. Repressor- turns the gene off
e. Regulatory site/gene- not part of the operon, gene of the repressor protein- whenever it binds to operator, physically blocks access for the RNA polymerase. DNA
7. What is a mutation? Do they always affect the protein being made? Types of mutations GENE (single gene and Chromosomal (whole chromosome). GENE: Point mutation- 1 or several nucleotides at a single point in DNA sequence,…