What is the first stage of the breakdown of glucose, common to both aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
Where does this happen?
Why is ATP required in the first stage of glycolysis?
To phosphorylate the glucose, making it more reactive
What is glucose split into during glycolysis?
2 molecules of triose phosphate
What is the end-product of glycolysis, that feeds into the link reaction?
2 molecules of pyruvate
What is removed from pyruvate in the link reaction, and what is formed?
Carbon dioxide; acetyl coenzyme A
What is the site of the link reaction and the Krebs cycle?
Matrix of the mitochondrion
What is the name of the 4-carbon molecule that combines with acetyl coenzyme A at the start of Krebs cycle?
What is the main purpose of the Krebs cycle?
To make ATP
What happens in the Krebs cycle to ensure the cycle can continue?
Oxaloacetate is regenerated
What else is produced in the Krebs cycle?
Carbon dioxide, ATP, reduced FAD, reduced NAD
By which type of phosphorylation is ATP made directly during the Krebs cycle?
What sort of molecule is NAD?
A nucleotide; a hydrogen carrier
NAD is a coenzyme for which group of important respiratory enzymes?
Reduced NAD is involved in which type of phosphorylation to produce ATP?
Where does this take place?
On the inner membrane/cristae of the mitochondrion
What is the name of the process by which ATP is synthesised on the inner membrane?
Electrons from reduced NAD or reduced FAD pass through a series of carriers on the membrane. How does this release energy?
Each carrier is at a lower energy level
What is the energy released