1. What is biology? The scientific study of life
2. What are the characteristics common to all living things that set them apart from all nonliving things?
Response to the environment
Reproduction, growth, development
Evolutionary Adaptation 3. What is positive feedback? an end product speeds up its own production. Negative feedback? accumulation of an end product of a process slows that process How does feedback benefit an organism? 4. What are the levels of organization in the living world? atoms & molecules organelles cells tissues organs, organ systems organisms population ecosystem What level is the most basic unit of life? Cell 5. How do we classify organisms in the living world?
genus family order class phylum kingdom domain What is taxonomy? the branch of biology that names and classifies species, formalizes this ordering of species into groups of increasing breadth, based on the degree to which they share characteristics. 6. How many domains of life are there? 3 Which are prokaryotic? Bacteria and Archaea Which are eukaryotic? Eukarya What's the difference? What are the three eukaryotic kingdoms and one additional group? King Animalia, King Plantae, King Fungi; Protists 7. How do we explain the unity and diversity of life with the theory of evolution?
Organisms are all descended from a common ancestor. (unity)
Modifications evolved as species branched from their common ancestor. (diversity) What is descent with modification?
Darwin proposed that natural selection, by its cumulative effects over long periods of time, could cause an ancestral species to give rise to two or more descendant species. What is natural selection? natural environment “selects” for the propagation of certain traits among naturally occurring variant traits in the population.
8. Know that the theme of structure determining function is important. It is observed at various levels in the living world from atoms and molecules all the way to organs and organelles.
The Scientific Method
9. What are the steps (in order) of the scientific method?
Observation- make observations about the natural world which lead to a testable question
Hypothesis- propose a tentative answer to the question, must be testable, falsifiable
Test/Experiment- perform a test using appropriate controls
Evaluation of Results- do the results support or reject the hypothesis
10. What are experimental variables? What is being tested. What is a control group? Control group is not tested. What is an experimental group? Experimental group is tested. Why is each important? They are important to the experiment to argue that the results are valid. Otherwise, it would be ineffective.
11. What do the terms hypothesis and theory mean in a scientific context?
Hypothesis- Tentative answer to a well-framed question.
Theory- Well supported hypothesis
12. What are the three subatomic particles we talked about? Protons, Electrons, Neutrons
13. How do we read the periodic table? In rows and groups. What information about each element can we obtain from the periodic table? Symbol, name, mass number, atomic number, and atomic mass.
14. How do electrons distribute themselves in the shells of atoms? Know the maximum number of electrons in each shell. Electrons fill lower energy shells first. The outermost shell is the valence shell.
First shell- 2 electrons
Second shell- 8 electrons
Third shell- 8 electrons
15. What are the two main types of bonds we discussed? Covalent and ionic bonds. Covalent bonds occur when atoms are shared. Ionic bonds occur when atoms are gained or lost.
16. What is electronegativity? The attraction of a particular atom for the electrons of a