What impacted the emergence of human communities?
Human cultivation of plants , animal domestication, and pottery vessels use as storage; shift of permanent settlements from small village to larger towns; The earliest complex societies arose in the great river valleys of Asia and Africa, around 3100 B.C.E. in the valley between the Tigris and Euphrates; Irrigation in the river water and arising of political power for organization of the massive human labor which require jobs to dig and maintain water carrying channels to fields. Ownership of bronze for production of many useful tools and it also stood as a sign of wealth. Organize agriculture which lead to social stratification, specialization of labor, urbanization, monumental building, technological development and artistic achievement.
From the Origin of Agriculture to the River Valley Civilizations 8000-1500 B.C.E.
What influence the first civilization to the river valley?
The story of Gilgamesh, superhero king of the city of Uruk influence their daily life; settled agricultural life and certain political, social, economic, and technological traits which include cities as administrative centers, political systems based on defined territory instead of kingship, non food producing activities, accumulation of wealth, monumental construction, permanent record keeping system, long distance trade, and interest in science and art. Periodic flooding fertilized the land with silt and provided water for agriculture
What qualities were needed to survive before civilization took place?
Underground caverns; stone tools; the inheritance of skills pass along within societies; patterns of action and expression in culture which included material objects like dwellings, clothing, crafts and tools and with non material values, beliefs, and languages.
Food Gathering and Stone Technology
How was food gathering and stone technology important to daily life?
Tools were also made of bone, skin, and wood, and materials that would survive poorly; this period encompasses many cultures and subperiods; Fossilized animal bones were use as butchering for scavenging and hunting activities of Stone Age peoples (its belive stone age people did not rely only on meat for food); doughnut-shaped stones served as weights to make wooden digging sticks more effective; clay cooking pots; animal skins serving as clothing; living in groups big enough to protect each other from predators and divided responsibilities; bands of around 50 followed animal migration or collect ripening plants too later cook; building huts out of branches, stones, bones, skins, and leaves; clothing out of animal skin; The foundations of what later ages called science, art, and religion also date to the Stone Age; beginning of science; knowledge of which plants were edible and when they ripened also to know which ones were natural substances effective for medicine, consciousness altering, dying and other purposes. Knowledge of the environment included identifying which minerals made good paints and which stones made good tools.
Chronology before Civilization The Agricultural Revolution
What events lead to the agricultural revolution in the River Valley.
The needs of food by raising domesticated plants and animals; most people becoming food producers; The term Neolithic Revolution is the changeover from food gathering to food producing, The term Agricultural Revolutions is more precise because it emphasizes the central role of food production and signals that the changeover occurred several times. The adoption of agriculture included domestication of animals for food; polished or ground stone heads to work the soil, sharp stone chips embedded in bone or wooden handles to cut grasses, and stone mortars to pulverize grain; fire to clear fields; highest-yielding strains of wild plants; higher-yielding domesticated grains, known as emmer…