Renaissance- cultural&political movement in W.Europe; began in Italy c1400; rested on urban vitality& expanding commerce; ft. literature &art w/distinctly more secular priorities than Middle
Machiavelli-author of The Prince(16th)emp realistic discussions of how to seize &maintain power
Petrarch-one of major literary figures of W.Renaissance; Italian author & humanist
Da Vinci-advanced realistic portrayal of human body
Michaelangelo-applied classical styles in painting &sculpture
Humanism-focus on humankind as center of intellectual &artistic endeavor;method of study that emphasized the superiority of classical forms over medieval styles, in particular the study of ancient languages
Northern Renaissance-ultural& intecllectual movement of northern Europe; began later than Italian renaissance c1450; centered in france, low countries,England, &Germany; ft greater emp on religion.
Shakespeare-renaissance writer from England
Rabelais-renaissance writer from France mized classical themes w/earthiness
Francis I-king of France (16th) renaissance monarch; patron of arts; imposed new controls on catholic church; ally of ottoman sultan against holy Roman emperor
Gutenberg-intro movable type to w.europe(15th) credited w/greatly expanded availability of printed books & pamphlets
Martin Luther-german monk; started Protestant Reformation in 1517 by nailing 95 theses to door of Wittenberg castle; emphasized primacy of faith over works stressed in Catholic church; accepted state control of Church.
Protestantism-general wave of religious dissent against catholic church; hold begun w/Martin Luther’s attack on Catholic beliefs (1517)
Angelican Church-form of Protestantism set up in English after 1543; est by Henry VIII w/himself as head at least in part to obtain a divorce from his first wife; became increasingly Protestant following his death
Calvinism-(JeanCalvin) insisted on God’s predestination/prior determination of those who would be saved.
Catholic Reformation-restatment of trad. Catholic beliefs in response to protestant reformation(16th) estab. Councils that revived catholic doctrine & refuted protestant beliefs
Edict of Nantes-grant of tolerance to protestants in France (1598) granted after lengthy civil war b/w catholic & protestant factions Thirty Years War/Treaty of Westphalia-Holy Roman Empire b/w German Protestants & allies (Sweden,Denmark,france) &emperor &ally, spain. Ended 1648 after great destruction w/treaty of Westphalia. Granted right in individual rulers within the emp to choose their own religion (pro/cath)
English Civil War-1640-1660; ft religious disputes mixed w/constitutional issues concerning powers of monarchy; ended w/restoration of the monarchy following execution of previous king
Price inflation-new wealth heightened demand for products to sell, both in colonies& Europe, but Western production couldn’t keep pace. Encouraged merchants to take new risks for borrowing was cheap when $ was losing value.
Proletariat-class of working people w/o access to producing property; typically manufacturing works,paid laborers in agri. economy/urban poor; in Europe, product of economicchangesof 16&17
Witchcraft persecution-reflected resentment against the poor, uncertainties about religious truth; resulted in deatch of over 100000 europeans 1590-1650. Common in protestant areas.
Scientific revolution-17th. Empirical advances associated w/development of wider theoretical generalizations;resulted in changes in traditional beliefs of middle ages
Copernicus-Polish monk & astronomer(16th) disproved Hellenistic belief that earth was at center of universe
Kepler-study of planetary motion from poor family. University on scholarship. Used work of coperniucus, resolved basic issues of planetary motion. Worked on optics w/ real intellectual life,astrology, horoscopes for wealthy patrons.
Galileo-published Copernicus’s findings(17th)added own discoveries w/laws of gravity& planetary