By: Madison Mendenhall
1. Who was Guillaume and what did he do?
- He was a goldsmith who lived during the early and mid decades of the thirteenth century. He lived in Paris and left to go to Budapest, a part of a kingdom of Hungary. He was captured by Mongol warriors but the warriors appreciated his talents and the warriors took him with them when they left Hungary. He was known to make great creations like a fountain made of silver shaped like a tree. The fountain had wine and other intoxicating substances flowing from it. Aside from the fountain, he also made statues of gold and silver, built carriages, designed buildings, and sewed ritual garments for Roman Catholic priests.
2. Describe the origins and political structure of the Turkish peoples.
- The boundaries of the Islamic world expanded with the political and military influence of Turkish people. By the mid-eighth to mid tenth century, Turkish people lived mosly on the borders of the Abbasid realm. Slowly the Turks migrated into the Abbasid realm and Anatolia and some even went into the Abbasid armies.
3. What was kumiss?
- Kumiss is a fermented dairy product traditionally made from mare's milk. It is sometimes mixed with wool.
4. How did one “rise” in the ranks of these central Asian nomadic communities?
- Nomadic societies consist of two social ranks; nobles and commoners. Nobles would pass there rank to their heir. Nobles would also go back to commoners and commoners can become nobles if they showed outstanding conduct.
5. What religion did most Turks eventually convert to?
- They would convert to either Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity, or Manichaeism.
6. Describe the role of the Khans and the military prowess of the nomads.
- Khans were confederate leaders. The authority extended through tribal elders and there exceptional strong cavalries were mobility and speed.
7. Who were the Saljuq Turks and what areas did they conquer in the 10th and 11th centuries?
- They were a group of Turkish people on the border of the Abbasid empire. They later emerged into the Abbasid empire and a leader, sultan, was recognized in 1055. His name was Tughril Beg. The Saljuq Turks overshadowed the Abbasid empire and they came into power. They also conquered the Byzantine Empire in the mid 11th century.
8. Describe the effects of Mahmud of Ghaznis’ conquest of India.
- He led the Turkish Ghaznavids of Afghanistan in raids on sites in northern India. He goes in first for plunder then later he becomes ruler. His forces stripped Buddhist and Hindu establishments and they encouraged Islam spread.
9. Who unified the Mongol tribes and when? What title was given to him?
- His name originally was Temujin in 1167. The title he was given changed his name to Chinggi Khan “Universal Ruler”.
10. Describe the Mongol political organization and military organization.
- Chinggi Khans policies helped strengthen the Mongol people. He broke up tribal organizations making the tribes come together. Chinggi also formed military units made up of men from different tribes, he also had many loyal people. Lastly, Chinggi established a non-nomadic capital at Karakorum. The military organization was riding horses, short bows, cavalry and rewarded enemies who surrendered and were cruel to enemies who did not surrender to them.
11. Describe the Mongol conquest of northern China and Persia.
- Chinggi himself expanded Mongol rule to China and dominated since 1127CE, however the Song dynasty continued to rule in southern China. Raids were becoming more frequent during the take over of northern China until northern China fell to Mongolian rule. In Persia, Chinggi invaded to seek out trade and trade routes. One man tried to kill Chinggi and he responded by taking his army and perused the Khwarazm shah. While on this rampage he destroyed much of Persia and Persia fell to Mongolian rule too.
12. What four “khanates” did the Mongol Empire divide into?
-His grandson khublai khan took the