Ch 25 Notes Triangular Trade Essay

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Chapter 25

Africa and the Atlantic World

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1

African States, 1500-1650

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2

The States of West Africa and
East Africa



Developed over eighth to sixteenth centuries
Kingdom of Ghana






Not related to modern State of Ghana
Major gold trader

Mali empire, thirteenth century
Songhay empire, fifteenth century



Sunni Ali (r. 1464-1493) created effective army, navy
Musket-bearing Moroccan army destroys Songhay forces; regional city-states exert local control
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3

Swahili Decline in East Africa





Portuguese Vasco da Gama skirmishes with
Africans on eastern coast, 1497-1498
1502 returns, forces Kilwa to pay tribute
1505 Portuguese gun ships dominate Swahili ports ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

4

The Kingdom of Kongo



Relations with Portuguese beginning 1483
King Nzinga Mbemba (Afonso I, r. 1506-1542) converts to Roman Catholicism



Useful connection with Portuguese interests
But zealous convert, attempts to convert population at large ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

5

The King of Kongo and European
Ambassadors

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6

Slave Raiding in Kongo



Initial Portuguese attempts at slave raiding
Soon discovered it is easier to trade weapons for slaves provided by African traders








Dealt with several authorities besides Kongo

Kongo kings appeal without success to slow, but not eliminate, slave trade
Relations deteriorate, Portuguese attack Kongo and decapitate king in 1665
Improved slave market develops in the south
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7

The Kingdom of Ndongo (Angola)




Ndongo gains wealth and independence from
Kongo by means of Portuguese slave trade
But Portuguese influence resisted by Queen
Nzinga (r. 1623-1663)




Posed as male king, with male concubines in female dress attending her

Nzinga establishes temporary alliance with Dutch in unsuccessful attempt to expel Portuguese


Decline of Ndongo power after her death
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8

Regional Kingdoms in South Africa




Chieftains develop trade with Swahili city-states
1300: Great Zimbabwe
Dutch build Cape Town in 1652, increased involvement with southern African politics




Encounter Khoikhoi people (“Hottentots”)

British colonies also develop

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9

Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa







Pre-Islamic paganism, ancestor worship
Islam develops in commercial centers
Timbuktu becomes major center of Islamic scholarship by sixteenth century
African traditions and beliefs blended into Islam
Gender relations, standards of female modesty

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10

The Fulani






Movement to impose strict adherence to Islamic norms in Africa
1680 begins military campaigns to enforce sharia in west Africa
Considerable influence extends to south as well

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11

Christianity in Sub-Saharan Africa






Like African Islam, syncretic with African beliefs
Antonian movement flourishes early eighteenth century
Founded by Dona Beatriz, claiming possession by
St. Anthony of Padua (thirteenth-century Franciscan preacher, patron saint of Portugal)
Promotes distinctly African Christianity




Jesus a black man, Kongo the holy land, heaven for Africans

Christian missionaries persuade King Pedro IV of Kongo to burn Dona Beatriz at the stake

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12

Social Change in Early Modern
Africa



Trade with Europeans brings new goods to Africa
New crops from Americas




Manioc becomes staple bread flour

Increased food supply boosts population…