Ch. 36 Outline Essay

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Pages: 9

Asian Paths to Autonomy India's quest for home rule Indian National Congress and Muslim League After WWI, both organizations dedicated to achieving independence Indian nationalists inspired by Wilson's Fourteen Points and the Russian Revolution Frustrated by Paris Peace settlement: no independence for colonies British responded to nationalist movement with repressive measures Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869-1948), leader of Indian nationalism Raised as a well-to-do Hindu, studied law in London Spent twenty-five years in South Africa, embraced tolerance and nonviolence Developed technique of passive resistance, followed a simple life Became political and spiritual leader, called the Mahatma ("Great Soul") Opposed to caste system, especially the exclusion of untouchables 1920-1922, led Non-Cooperation Movement; 1930, Civil Disobedience Movement The India Act of 1937 1919 British massacre at Amritsar killed 379 demonstrators, aroused public Repression failed, so the British offered modified self-rule through the India Act Unsuccessful because India's six hundred princes refused to support Muslims would not cooperate, wanted an independent state Great Depression worsened conflict between Hindus and Muslims Muslims believed Hindus discriminated against them Muhammad Ali Jinnah, head of the Muslim League, proposed two states, one of which would be Pakistan China's search for order The republic, after 1911 1911 revolution did not establish a stable republic; China fell into warlords' rule Through unequal treaties, foreign states still controlled economy of China Growth of Chinese nationalism Chinese intellectuals expected Paris Peace Conference to end treaty system Instead, Paris treaties approved Japanese expansion into China May Fourth Movement: Chinese youths and intellectuals opposed to imperialism Some were attracted to Marxism and Leninism; CCP established in 1921 CCP (Chinese Communist Party) and Guomindang (The Nationalist Party) CCP leader Mao Zedong advocated women's equality, socialism Guomindang leader Sun Yatsen favored democracy and nationalism Two parties formed alliance, assisted by the Soviet Union, against foreigners Civil war after death of Sun Yatsen, 1925 Led by Jiang Jieshi, both parties launched Northern Expedition to reunify China Successful, Jiang then turned on his communist allies 1934-1935, CCP retreated to Yan'an on the Long March, 6,215 miles Mao emerged as the leader of CCP, developed Maoist ideology Imperial and Imperialist Japan Japan emerged from Great War as a world power Participated in the League of Nations Signed treaty with United States guaranteeing China's integrity Japanese economy boosted by war: sold munitions to Allies Prosperity short-lived; economy slumped during Great Depression Labor unrest, demands for social reforms Political conflict emerged between internationalists, supporters of western-style capitalism, and nationalists, hostile to foreign influences The Mukden incident, 1931, in Manchuria Chinese unification threatened Japanese interests in Manchuria Japanese troops destroyed tracks on Japanese railroad, claimed Chinese attack Incident became pretext for Japanese attack against China