Geography: An Exploration of
World Regional Geography Concepts
Pulsipher and Pulsipher
What is Geography?
A study of the Earth’s surface and the processes that shape it.
The word Geography is a combination of two words: “Geo” means earth and “graphy” means description.
Therefore, ‘Geography’ means: “description of the earth.”
The ancient Greek scholar Eratosthenes first used the word Geography.
The Discipline of Geography: Two Major Divisions.
Physical Geography and Human Geography
Geography is a unique discipline which connects physical sciences: geology, physics, chemistry, biology and social sciences: anthropology, sociology, history, economics, and political science.
Therefore, Geography is interdisciplinary.
Three Central Questions:
Where is it?
Why is it there?
Why does it matter?
Connection between environment and people A Childhood Landscape Map: Cognitive
Concept of Space in geography
Definition: Space is the extent of an area, usually expressed in terms of the earth’s surface.
the term “spatial” and “spatial relationships” are at the heart of geography
Absolute space: It refers to clearly distinct, real, objective space. It can be measured in absolute units of distance (kilometers or miles).
Relative Space: Space is perceived in terms of time, cost, profit, and production.
e.g. Socio-economic space or cultural space
Metro System in Milan, Italy
Topological Space is defined as the connections between particular points
Nature and degree of connectivity between locations
Cognitive Space: It is defined and measured in terms of people’s values, feelings, beliefs, and perceptions about locations, districts, and regions.
Interaction between environment and people in the Sundarban
Biosphere Reserve, West
What is Geography?
Two Major branches of Geography
Definition of Geography
Circumference of Geography and interdisciplinary nature of the subject
Concept of space: Absolute, Relative, and
Topological space: A type of absolute space
Three central Questions: Where is it? Why is it there? And Why does it matter?
Connection between environment and people
Sudanese children working and playing
Work: collecting fire-wood
Geographer’s visual Tools:
Map: may be defined as a two dimensional scale model of a part of the surface of the Earth.
Geographers who specialize in producing and interpreting geographic information graphically are called cartographers. Cartography: The production and study of maps and charts Scale is the heart and soul of Geography and Cartography.
Scale: The relationship between map distance and corresponding ground distance
R.F. or Representative Fraction: Numeric ratio
e.g. 1: 1,000,000 or 1/1,000,000
Numerator and denominator expressed in the same unit of measurement Maps
Thematic Maps: Concentrate on spatial variations of a single phenomenon or the relationship between phenomena
e.g. Map showing vegetation zones of KY
Topographi c Topographic maps:
Topographic maps depict as much of the surface features
(Physical and human features) of a particular area as is possible within the limitation of the scale.
What Kind of
Map is this?
Thematic or Topographic?
TOTAL POPULATION: THE WORLD
Colors are used to show spatial distribution.
These are qualitative maps as the mapping procedure does not consider any numerical information. This is a chorochromatic map:
“Choro” means area
“Chromos” means color Thematic or Topographic ?
The Basic component of a map: Scale, North-line,
Title, caption and legend
Latitudes and Longitudes
Most map contains lines of latitudes and longitudes Lines of Latitudes and Lines of