Postmodern era of education is quite different from the previous period, the industrial society. For example, in industrial society, children seated where shown them in class and school hours started and finished with bells. Away from individualism, hard and solid grouping systems, assessments with test scores, the authoritarian attitude of teacher were the most prominent features of education in the industrial period. In the post-industrial age, while machines work in uniform task, humans will be busy with jobs using their knowledge, intelligence and creativity. Working people will be the ones that they will bring a critical perspective on their work, make their own way under the worst conditions, be able to form new relationships with people in ever-changing environment, and understand every detail of the future. In this century in which we live, not only to learn knowledge but also to use knowledge is important. Knowledge is to reach the masses in a short time in our world which information technology is rapidly developing. However, within a short period it loses its validity and timeliness. Of course, in such a world, the task of education will be to teach people how to obtain information rather than to teach it. The postmodern education is a critical inquiry for the elimination of main approaches on ceremonial programs and leadership discourses. I think it emphasizes the importance of rewritten of the relationship among power, information and desire.
Learning is not independent from social and cognitive processes. From this perspective, constructivism brings a new dimension to learning applications. Learners in the process of traditional education receive information through books and teachers. Information offered by teachers and textbooks are accurate, real and absolute. However, according to Mannheim, knowledge is always produced from a specific social and historical standpoint. The right information at one time may not work the next time. In this respect, individuals generate the information continuously in the process. In this context, the information may not be true, accurate, and absolute, but may be applicable and valid. Every student should construct the meaning of knowledge in learning process individualistically and socially. The adaptation of knowledge which student acquires from school to real life is more precious than memorizing some pieces of information.
2. Making Social Science Matter:
In discussions of admitting social sciences as natural sciences, one controversial issue has been discussed why social sciences have failed as sciences. On the one hand, social sciences can be considered like natural sciences because many scientists use data to explain some social circumstances and assert some social theories. On the other hand, Rorty argues that it is impossible to evaluate the social sciences as normal sciences.
When it comes to the topic of education, most of us will readily agree that social sciences are not like natural sciences. However, researchers in education use scientific methods to explain educational issues. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 requires scientifically-based