Despotism, Beginning Republicanism, Budding Democracy and Human Condition Despotism in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was changing; the thoughts of the philosophies through their writings were integrating into the public with the advent of the printing press. These challenging new ways of thinking gave people new ideas about government and self rule. As Christianity was questioned, its role in government was questioned also. Religious sins were evaluated and found not to be crimes of justice but were only crimes of religion. Some of the inner workings of despotism from solitary rule like torture were being replaced with more educated punishments. Social reforms started in society as well as in court. Thinking turned to human rights and what that meant as a whole. Slavery and the human condition became more known and thought about. Men were becoming more enlightened and free. The economy grew, along with this enlightenment came a new economic industry. With new economics and free commerce came new ideas on government. One French philosopher who had issues with religion in government was Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu from France who believed that religion put fear into man especially when it was used in a despot government. He despised it. He said about despotism that it “is always bad”. (Gay 1969, p. 331) In his analysis of despotism he found “nothing worthy in a regime whose principal was fear, whose policy was tyranny, and whose consequence was inhumanity.” (Gay 1969, p. 331)He campaigned against despotism in his 1748 writing of The Spirit of the Laws. In his writings about the English constitution he said that government is divided into three sections, the first, the legislative branch, makes the rules and sees that they are carried out. He says the second is the executive branch that declares war and keeps the safety of the community and the third is the judiciary power that sentences criminals and intermediates disputes.( Montesquieu, 1748) By splitting power up three ways he says that it keeps one branch from controlling all and becoming tyrannical. Most English monarchies still controlled two of the three but gave one up to the people. Montesquieu says “the prince, who is invested with the two first powers, leaves the third to his subjects”. (Montesquieu, 1748) This is the beginning of a republic government where powers of government are broken up and there are many checks and balances to ward off tyranny. In our republic government the executive branch enforces the laws by way of the President, the legislative branch makes laws with congress and the judicial branch interprets the laws. Another enlightened social reformist was Voltaire, a lawyer and a philosophe, who overturned a case in which he believed justice was not served. In doing this he brought to light to the public many things wrong in the judicial system, religious sins that were being governed by laws, torture to illicit confessions, witnesses who were persuaded to testify falsely. He overturned the case and gave peace to the family who had endured needless shame when the father was falsely found guilty of murdering his son who had committed suicide. (Gay 1969) This gave way to a new era of humane punishments and a more intelligent judicial system. Another philosophe who advocated against the barbaric judicial system, Cesare Bonesana, Marchese Beccaria, an aristocrat turned philosophe. In his writing, Of Crimes and Punishments, he elaborated on what he thought was wrong and needed to be done. He felt “laws are the conditions under which men unite themselves in society” (Beccaria, ch. 1,1764) He also says that there shouldn’t be just one party to judge right or wrong but there must be three parties, one for the accused, one doing the accuser and the third to judge.(Beccaria ch. 3, 1764) This is a more enlightened way of thinking, closer to a republic than from a despot’s point of view where he would have the only word.…
Examine the ways in which childhood can be said to be socially constructed (24)
It can be argued that they are many ways in which society has indeed socially constructed childhood. This has not happened in just the last 10 years, this has happened over many centuries. In this time society has changed how childhood is structured and how children are treated and is still ever changing with the influences from different cultures and different sides of the world. Because of Cross-cultural…
What Is Your Philosophy?
November 19, 2012
C. Wayne Mayhill
Student Jeremy D. Adams
Philosophy is the general study of fundamental and social problems. Upon taking the What is Philosophy? Performance Aid this author discovered that he is a moral type of philosopher. There are many different types of philosophical outlooks; these include epistemology, moral, metaphysics, social, political, structuralism, deconstruction, eastern, postcolonial, feminism.
The Origins of Sociology
(1798-1857) Auguste Comte is considered to be the founder of sociology. Comte’s main concern was the improvement of society. If societies were to advance, Comte believed social behavior had to be studied scientifically. Comte published his theories in a book titled Positive Philosophy, but died before people could appreciate his work.
(1802-1876) She lost her sense of taste, smell, and hearing at an early age. Her profound deafness…
Intro to Sociology
Sociology is the systematic study of human society. It is about human beings interacting together and what happens when we interact with each other. Sociology is literally the study of society and how it works. Every time we come in contact with another human being, it’s a form of sociology. Sociologists study the social trends in society. Life is surrounded with various issues from a social standpoint. We all live, dress, speak, and act a certain way because of the way…
not enough time
Children : not close to parents as they used to
Mistakenly believe that: provide a lot of money
Impact: children really and love, too young
Seriously: get divorced – negatively impact
As a matter of fact, living in the fast changing world, parents today appear to be impacted/ influenced/ affected by the pressure of work and life and in some cases, they do not pay enough attention to their children as they used to. Obviously there are many reasons why people complain that the…
Term Test 1
Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Indicate your answer by blacking in the relevant box on the SCANTRON sheet. Be sure to print your name and student number clearly on the answer sheet.
1. Most people agree that sociology first emerged: (pg1)
a. approximately 70 years ago, following the end of World War II
b. in the early 19th century when Max Weber invented the term sociologie about 200 years ago…
Symbolic Interactionism’s history was originated with two key theorists, George Herman Mead and Charles Horton Cooley. George Mead’s approach to the theory of Symbolic Interactionism was so powerful that he was regarded by other theorists as the founder of that tradition. Mead was a teacher in the Philosophy department, but still was recognized by sociologists as the man who taught a generation everything they know about this…
Chapter 1: Sociology
In gaining an understanding about our world, we have developed two sets of sciences. The first one is called the natural sciences-developed to explain and predict the events in our natural environment. The natural sciences are divided in to specialized fields of research- such as biology, geology, biology, chemistry and physics. Each area investigates a particular “slice” of nature. Given that, people have not limited themselves…
Sociology – Assess the sociological explanations of changes in the status of childhood
Introduction – Childhood is seen as a social construct meaning that it is defined by society and it is not a natural or biological state. Childhood is shaped and given meaning by our culture and so behaviour seen as appropriate for children, the way children should be treated and also the time at which childhood should end are all socially constructed.